40 CFR 92.116 - Engine output measurement system calibrations.
(a) General requirements for dynamometer calibration.
(1) The engine flywheel torque and engine speed measurement transducers shall be calibrated with the calibration equipment described in this section.
(2) The engine flywheel torque feedback signals to the cycle verification equipment shall be electronically checked before each test, and adjusted as necessary.
(3) Other engine dynamometer system calibrations shall be performed as dictated by good engineering practice.
(4) When calibrating the engine flywheel torque transducer, any lever arm used to convert a weight or a force through a distance into a torque shall be used in a horizontal position (±5 degrees).
(5) Calibrated resistors may not be used for engine flywheel torque transducer calibration, but may be used to span the transducer prior to engine testing.
(b) Dynamometer calibration equipment -
(1) Torque calibration equipment. Two techniques are allowed for torque calibration. Alternate techniques may be used if shown to yield equivalent accuracies. The NIST “true” value torque is defined as the torque calculated by taking the product of an NIST traceable weight or force and a sufficiently accurate horizontal lever arm distance, corrected for the hanging torque of the lever arm.
(i) The lever-arm dead-weight technique involves the placement of known weights at a known horizontal distance from the center of rotation of the torque measuring device. The equipment required is:
(A) Calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range of torque measuring device used are required. The weights must be approximately equally spaced and each must be traceable to NIST weights within 0.1 percent. Laboratories located in foreign countries may certify calibration weights to local government bureau standards. Certification of weight by state government Bureau of Weights and Measures is acceptable. Effects of changes in gravitational constant at the test site may be accounted for if desired.
(B) Lever arm. A lever arm with a minimum length of 24 inches is required. The horizontal distance from the centerline of the engine torque measurement device to the point of weight application shall be accurate to within ±0.10 inches. The arm must be balanced, or the hanging torque of the arm must be known to within ±0.1 ft-lbs.
(ii) The transfer technique involves the calibration of a master load cell (i.e., dynamometer case load cell). This calibration can be done with known calibration weights at known horizontal distances, or by using a hydraulically actuated precalibrated master load cell. This calibration is then transferred to the flywheel torque measuring device. The technique involves the following steps:
(A) A master load cell shall be either precalibrated or be calibrated per paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section with known weights traceable to NIST within 0.1 percent, and used with the lever arm(s) specified in this section. The dynamometer should be either running or vibrated during this calibration to minimize static hysteresis.
(B) Transfer of calibration from the case or master load cell to the flywheel torque measuring device shall be performed with the dynamometer operating at a constant speed. The flywheel torque measurement device readout shall be calibrated to the master load cell torque readout at a minimum of six loads approximately equally spaced across the full useful ranges of both measurement devices. (Note that good engineering practice requires that both devices have approximately equal useful ranges of torque measurement.) The transfer calibration shall be performed in a manner such that the accuracy requirements of § 92.106(b)(1)(ii) for the flywheel torque measurement device readout be met or exceeded.
(iii) Other techniques may be used if shown to yield equivalent accuracy.
(2) Speed calibration equipment. A 60 (or greater) tooth wheel in combination with a common mode rejection frequency counter is considered an absolute standard for engine or dynamometer speed.
(c) Dynamometer calibration.
(1) If necessary, follow the manufacturer's instructions for initial start-up and basic operating adjustments.
(2) Check the dynamometer torque measurement for each range used by the following:
(i) Warm up the dynamometer following the equipment manufacturer's specifications.
(ii) Determine the dynamometer calibration moment arm. Equipment manufacturer's data, actual measurement, or the value recorded from the previous calibration used for this subpart may be used.
(iii) Calculate the indicated torque (IT) for each calibration weight to be used by:
(iv) Attach each calibration weight specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section to the moment arm at the calibration distance determined in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. Record the power measurement equipment response (ft-lb) to each weight.
(vi) The measured torque must be within 2 percent of the calculated torque.
(vii) If the measured torque is not within 2 percent of the calculated torque, adjust or repair the system. Repeat the steps in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(vi) of this section with the adjusted or repaired system.
(3) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the in-use torque measurement system.
(i) The master load-cell and read out system must be calibrated with weights at each test weight specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section. The calibration weights must be traceable to within 0.1 percent of NIST weights.
(ii) Warm up the dynamometer following the equipment manufacturer's specifications.
(iii) Attach the master load-cell and loading system.
(iv) Load the dynamometer to a minimum of 6 equally spaced torque values as indicated by the master load-cell for each in-use range used.
(v) The in-use torque measurement must be within 2 percent of the torque measured by the master system for each load used.
(vi) If the in-use torque is not within 2 percent of the master torque, adjust or repair the system. Repeat steps in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) through (b)(3)(vi) of this section with the adjusted or repaired system.
(4) The dynamometer calibration must be completed within 2 hours from the completion of the dynamometer warm-up.
(d) Electrical load banks. Equipment used to measure the electrical power output dissipated by electrical load banks shall be calibrated as frequently as required by § 92.115, using a calibration procedure that is consistent with good engineering practice and approved by the Administrator.