40 CFR 92.127 - Emission measurement accuracy.
(a) Good engineering practice dictates that exhaust emission sample analyzer readings below 15 percent of full scale chart deflection should generally not be used.
(b) Some high resolution read-out systems such as computers, data loggers, etc., can provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 percent of full scale. Such systems may be used provided that additional calibrations are made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves. The following procedure for calibration below 15 percent of full scale may be used:
(1) If a 16-point gas divider is used, 50 percent of the calibration points shall be below 10 percent of full scale. The gas divider shall conform to the accuracy requirements specified in § 92.112.
(2) If a 7- or 9-point gas divider is used, the gas divider shall conform to the accuracy requirements specified in § 92.112, and shall be used according to the following procedure:
(i) Span the full analyzer range using a top range calibration gas meeting the calibration gas accuracy requirements of § 92.112.
(ii) Generate a calibration curve according to, and meeting the applicable requirements of §§ 92.118 through 92.122.
(iii) Select a calibration gas (a span gas may be used for calibrating the CO2 analyzer) with a concentration between the two lowest non-zero gas divider increments. This gas must be “named” to an accuracy of ±1.0 percent (±2.0 percent for CO2 span gas) of NIST gas standards, or other standards approved by the Administrator.
(iv) Using the calibration curve fitted to the points generated in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section, check the concentration of the gas selected in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section. The concentration derived from the curve shall be within ±2.3 percent (±2.8 percent for CO2 span gas) of the gas' original named concentration.
(v) Provided the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section are met, use the gas divider with the gas selected in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section and determine the remainder of the calibration points. Fit a calibration curve per §§ 92.118 through 92.122 for the entire analyzer range.