40 CFR § 92.8 - Emission standards.

§ 92.8 Emission standards.

(a) Exhaust standards. Exhaust emissions from locomotives and locomotive engines, when measured in accordance with the provisions of Subpart B of this part, shall comply with both the applicable line-haul duty-cycle standards, and the applicable switch duty-cycle standards of paragraph (a)(1) (and/or the standards of paragraphs (a)(3) and (a)(4) of this section, as applicable) of this section, and the smoke standards of paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Emissions that do not exceed the standards comply with the standards.

(1) Gaseous and particulate standards. Gaseous and particulate emission standards are expressed as gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr). Non-methane hydrocarbon standards apply to locomotives and locomotive engines fueled with natural gas, and any combination of natural gas and other fuels where natural gas is the primary fuel; total hydrocarbon equivalent standards apply to locomotives and locomotive engines fueled with an alcohol, and any combination of alcohol and other fuels where alcohol is the primary fuel. Total hydrocarbon standards apply to all other locomotives and locomotive engines; that is, those not fueled by natural gas or alcohol. The line-haul duty-cycle standards and switch duty-cycle standards apply to the respective cycle-weighted emission rates as calculated in subpart B of this part.

(i) Tier 0. The following locomotives (and the engines used in the following locomotives) are subject to the Tier 0 emission standards listed in table A8-1 of this section: Locomotives manufactured on, or after, January 1, 1973, and before January 1, 2002; and upgraded locomotives manufactured prior to January 1, 1973. The standards apply when such a locomotive or locomotive engine is manufactured, remanufactured, or imported on or after January 1, 2002; except where the locomotive was previously certified to one or more FELs under subpart D of this part instead of the applicable standards, in which case, the applicable standards are replaced at each subsequent remanufacture by the FELs specified by the previous certificate. Example: a locomotive that is certified to a NOX FEL of 8.0 g/bhp-hr must be recertified to a NOX FEL of 8.0 g/bhp-hr at each subsequent remanufacture, except as allowed by paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Tier 1. Locomotives and engines used in locomotives manufactured on, or after, January 1, 2002, and before January 1, 2005 are subject to the Tier 1 standards listed in table A8-2 of this section. The standards apply when such a locomotive or locomotive engine is manufactured or imported, and each time it is re manufactured; except where the locomotive was previously certified to one or more FELs under subpart D of this part instead of the applicable standard, in which case, the standards are replaced at each subsequent remanufacture by the FELs specified by the previous certificate.

(iii) Tier 2. Locomotives and engines used in locomotives manufactured on, or after, January 1, 2005 are subject to the Tier 2 standards listed in table A8-3 of this section. The standards apply when such a locomotive or locomotive engine is manufactured or imported, and each time it is re manufactured except where the locomotive was previously certified to one or more FELs under subpart D of this part instead of the applicable standard, in which case, the standards are replaced at each subsequent remanufacture by the FELs specified by the previous certificate.

(2) Smoke standards. The smoke opacity standards listed in table A8-4 of this section apply, as specified in the table, to locomotives and locomotive engines subject to the Tier 0, Tier 1, or Tier 2 standards. Smoke emissions, when measured in accordance with the provisions of subpart B of this part, shall not exceed the standards of table A8-4 of this section.

(3) Alternate standards. In lieu of the CO and PM standards specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, manufacturers and re manufacturers may elect to comply with the alternate CO and PM standards listed in table A8-5 of this section. Manufacturers and re manufacturers electing to comply with these alternate standards must comply with both the CO and PM standards listed in table A8-5 of this section.

(4) Averaging, banking and trading.

(i) In lieu of the NOX and/or PM standards specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, manufacturers and re manufacturers may elect to include engine families in the averaging, banking, and trading program, the provisions of which are specified in subpart D of this part. The manufacturer or remanufacturer must set family emission limits (FEL) for the applicable duty-cycle. This FEL serves as the standard for that family.

(ii) When a locomotive is certified to an FEL other than the applicable standard, it must be recertified to that same FEL at all subsequent remanufactures, except as specified otherwise in paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section.

(iii) After a locomotive has been certified to any given FEL other than the applicable standard, it may be recertified to a different FEL at a subsequent remanufacture, as allowed by subpart D of this part. For subsequent remanufactures (i.e. those remanufactures that occur after the recertification to a different FEL), the locomotive must be recertified to the FEL(s) and standards that were applicable to the locomotive during its previous useful life, except where specified otherwise by subpart D of this part.

(5) Tables. The tables referenced in paragraphs (a) (1) through (3) of this section follow:

Table A8-1 - Tier 0 Standards

[g/bhp-hr]

Line-haul 1 cycle standard Switch cycle standard
NOX 9.5 14.0
PM 0.60 0.72
CO 5.0 8.0
THC 1.00 2.10
NMHC 1.00 2.10
THCE 1.00 2.10

1 Line-haul standards do not apply to Tier 0 switch locomotives.

Table A8-2 - Tier 1 Standards

[g/bhp-hr]

Line-haul cycle standard Switch cycle standard
NOX 7.4 11.0
PM 0.45 0.54
CO 2.2 2.5
THC 0.55 1.20
NMHC 0.55 1.20
THCE 0.55 1.20

Table A8-3 - Tier 2 Standards

[g/bhp-hr]

Line-haul cycle standard Switch cycle standard
NOX 5.5 8.1
PM 0.20 0.24
CO 1.5 2.4
THC 0.30 0.60
NMHC 0.30 0.60
THCE 0.30 0.60

Table A8-4 - Smoke Standards for Locomotives

[Percent Opacity]

Steady-state 30-sec peak 3-sec peak
Tier 0 30 40 50
Tier 1 25 40 50
Tier 2 20 40 50

Table A8-5 - Alternate CO and PM Standards

[g/bhp-hr]

Line-haul cycle Switch cycle
CO PM CO PM
Tier 0 10.0 0.30 12.0 0.36
Tier 1 10.0 0.22 12.0 0.27
Tier 2 10.0 0.10 12.0 0.12

(b) No crankcase emissions shall be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere from any new locomotive or new locomotive engine, except as allowed by paragraph (1) of this paragraph (b).

(1) Discharge of crankcase emissions into the engine exhaust complies with this prohibition, provided crankcase emissions are measured and included with exhaust emissions. Other discharge of crankcase emissions complies with this prohibition, provided crankcase emissions are measured in all certification, production-line, and in-use tests and the masses are added mathematically to the exhaust emissions.

(2) Compliance with this standard is required throughout the entire service life of the locomotive or locomotive engine.

(c) Notch standards.

(1) Exhaust emissions from locomotives and locomotive engines shall not exceed the notch standards set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, except as allowed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, when measured using any test procedures under any test conditions.

(2) Notch standards for each pollutant for each notch are calculated from the certified notch emission rate as follows:

Notch standard = (Ex) × (1.1 + (1−ELHx/std))
Where:
Ex = The deteriorated brake-specific emission rate (for pollutant x) for the notch (i.e., the brake-specific emission rate calculated under subpart B of this part, multplied by the deterioration factor in the application for certification expressed as a multiplicative deterioration factor); where x is NOX. HC (or NMHC or THCE, as applicable), CO or PM.
ELHx = The deteriorated line-haul duty-cycle weighted brake-specific emission rate for pollutant x, as reported in the application for certification.
std = The applicable line-haul duty-cycle standard, or the certified line-haul duty-cycle FEL for locomotives or locomotive engines participating in the averaging, banking and trading program for NOx or PM.

(3) Where exhaust emissions exceed the notch standards set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the locomotive or locomotive engine is considered to be in compliance with such standards only if:

(i) The same emission controls are applied during the test conditions causing the noncompliance as were applied during certification test conditions (and to the same degree); or

(ii) The exceeding emissions result from a design feature that was described (including its effect on emissions) in the approved application for certification, and is necessary for safety or is otherwise allowed by this part.

[63 FR 18998, Apr. 16, 1998, as amended at 70 FR 40453, July 13, 2005]