40 CFR 92.905 - Testing exemption.
(1) The Administrator may exempt from the standards and/or other requirements and prohibitions of this part new locomotives or new locomotive engines that are being used solely for the purpose of conducting a test program. Any person requesting an exemption for the purpose of conducting a test program must demonstrate the following:
(i) That the test program has a purpose which constitutes an appropriate basis for an exemption in accordance this section;
(ii) That the proposed test program necessitates the granting of an exemption;
(iii) That the proposed test program exhibits reasonableness in scope; and
(iv) That the proposed test program exhibits a degree of oversight and control consonant with the purpose of the test program and EPA's monitoring requirements.
(2) Paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section describe what constitutes a sufficient demonstration for each of the four elements identified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section.
(b) With respect to the purpose of the proposed test program, an appropriate purpose would be research, investigations, studies, demonstrations, technology development, or training, but not national security. A concise statement of purpose is a required item of information.
(c) With respect to the necessity that an exemption be granted, necessity arises from an inability to achieve the stated purpose in a practicable manner without performing or causing to be performed one or more of the prohibited acts under § 92.1103. In appropriate circumstances, time constraints may be a sufficient basis for necessity, but the cost of certification alone, in the absence of extraordinary circumstances, is not a basis for necessity.
(d) With respect to reasonableness, a test program must exhibit a duration of reasonable length and affect a reasonable number of engines. In this regard, required items of information include:
(1) An estimate of the program's duration; and
(2) The maximum number of locomotives or locomotive engines involved.
(e) With respect to control, the test program must incorporate procedures consistent with the purpose of the test and be capable of affording EPA monitoring capability. As a minimum, required items of information include:
(1) The technical nature of the testing;
(2) The location(s) of the testing;
(3) The time, work, or mileage duration of the testing;
(4) The ownership arrangement with regard to the locomotives and engines involved in the testing;
(5) The intended final disposition of the locomotives and engines;
(6) The manner in which the locomotive or engine identification numbers will be identified, recorded, and made available; and
(7) The means or procedure whereby test results will be recorded.
(f) A manufacturer or remanufacturer of new locomotives or locomotive engines may request a testing exemption to cover locomotives or locomotive engines intended for use in test programs planned or anticipated over the course of a subsequent two-year period. Unless otherwise required by the Director, Engine Programs and Compliance Division, a manufacturer or remanufacturer requesting such an exemption need only furnish the information required by paragraphs (a)(1) and (d)(2) of this section along with a description of the recordkeeping and control procedures that will be employed to assure that the locomotives or locomotive engines are used for purposes consistent with paragraph (a) of this section.
(g) For locomotives being used for the purpose of developing a fundamentally new emission control technology related either to an alternative fuel or an aftertreatment device, the Administrator may exempt the locomotive from some or all of the applicable standards of this part for the full useful life of the locomotive, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section.