40 CFR § 94.204 - Designation of engine families.
This section specifies the procedure and requirements for grouping of engines into engine families.
(a) Manufacturers shall divide their engines into groupings of engines which are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout their useful life. Each group shall be defined as a separate engine family.
(b) For Category 1 marine engines, the following characteristics distinguish engine families:
(2) Cooling method (including cooling medium);
(3) Method of air aspiration;
(4) Method of exhaust aftertreatment (for example, catalytic converter or particulate trap);
(5) Combustion chamber design;
(8) Number of cylinders, (engines with aftertreatment devices only);
(9) Cylinder arrangement (engines with aftertreatment devices only);
(10) Fuel system configuration; and
(11) Class (commercial or recreational).
(c) For Category 2 marine engines, the following characteristics distinguish engine families:
(1) The combustion cycle (e.g., diesel cycle);
(2) The type of engine cooling employed (air-cooled or water-cooled), and procedure(s) employed to maintain engine temperature within desired limits (thermostat, on-off radiator fan(s), radiator shutters, etc.);
(3) The bore and stroke dimensions;
(4) The approximate intake and exhaust event timing and duration (valve or port);
(5) The location of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports);
(6) The size of the intake and exhaust valves (or ports);
(7) The overall injection, or as appropriate ignition, timing characteristics (i.e., the deviation of the timing curves from the optimal fuel economy timing curve must be similar in degree);
(8) The combustion chamber configuration and the surface-to-volume ratio of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center position, using nominal combustion chamber dimensions;
(9) The location of the piston rings on the piston;
(10) The method of air aspiration (turbocharged, supercharged, naturally aspirated, Roots blown);
(11) The turbocharger or supercharger general performance characteristics (e.g., approximate boost pressure, approximate response time, approximate size relative to engine displacement);
(12) The type of air inlet cooler (air-to-air, air-to-liquid, approximate degree to which inlet air is cooled);
(13) The intake manifold induction port size and configuration;
(14) The type of fuel and fuel system configuration;
(15) The configuration of the fuel injectors and approximate injection pressure;
(16) The type of fuel injection system controls (i.e., mechanical or electronic);
(17) The type of smoke control system;
(18) The exhaust manifold port size and configuration; and
(19) The type of exhaust aftertreatment system (oxidation catalyst, particulate trap), and characteristics of the aftertreatment system (catalyst loading, converter size vs engine size).
(d) Upon request by the manufacturer, engines that are eligible to be included in the same engine family based on the criteria in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section may be divided into different engine families. This request must be accompanied by information the manufacturer believes supports the use of these different engine families.
(e) Upon request by the manufacturer, the Administrator may allow engines that would be required to be grouped into separate engine families based on the criteria in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section to be grouped into a single engine family if the manufacturer demonstrates that the engines will have similar emission characteristics; however, recreational and commercial engines may not be grouped in the same engine family. This request must be accompanied by emission information supporting the appropriateness of such combined engine families.
(f) Category 3 engines shall be grouped into engine families based on the criteria specified in Section 4.3 of the Annex VI Technical Code (incorporated by reference in § 94.5), except as allowed in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.