# 40 CFR Part 435, Subpart A, Appendix 7 to Subpart A of Part 435 - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by a Retort Chamber (Derived From API Recommended Practice 13B-2) (EPA Method 1674)

^{3}volume with an external heating jacket.

^{3}.

^{3}.

^{3}, 20-cm

^{3})—the 10-cm

^{3}and 20-cm

^{3}receivers are specially designed cylindrical glassware with rounded bottom to facilitate cleaning and funnel-shaped top to catch falling drops. For compliance monitoring under the NPDES program, the analyst shall use the 10-cm

^{3}liquid receiver with 0.1 ml graduations to achieve greater accuracy.

^{3}, 20-cm

^{3}.

^{3}, ±0.05 cm

^{3}.

^{3}, 0.10-cm

^{3}.

^{3}, cm

^{3}

*see*

*Note*in Section 1 of this appendix).

^{3}.

*w*) equals the mass of the retort assembly with the wet cuttings sample (B) minus the mass of the empty retort assembly (A).

*w*= B−A[1]

*D*) equals the mass of the cooled retort assembly (E) minus the mass of the empty retort assembly (A).

*D*= E−A[2]

*BF*) equals the mass of the liquid receiver with its contents (D) minus the sum of the mass of the dry receiver (C) and the mass of the water (V).

*BF*= D−(C V)[3]

^{3}, the volume of water is equivalent to the mass of the water.

*D*, M

*BF*, and V shall be within 5% of the mass of the wet sample.

*D*M

*BF*V)/M

*w*= 0.95 to 1.05[4]

*i*) for the sampled discharge “i” is equal to 100 times the mass of the NAF base fluid (M

*BF*) divided by the mass of the wet cuttings sample (M

*w*).

*i*= (M

*BF*/M

*w*) × 100[5]

*i.e.*, displaced interfaces, accumulated solids in sand traps, pit clean-out solids, or centrifuge discharges while cutting mud weight) shall either: (a) Measure the mass percent NAF base fluid retained on the cuttings (

*SVD*) for each small volume NAF-cuttings discharges; or (b) use a default value of 25% NAF base fluid retained on the cuttings.

*see*Section 4.c.6 of this appendix for procedures on measuring or estimating the mass percent NAF base fluid retained on the cuttings () for dual gradient drilling seafloor discharges performed to ensure proper operation of subsea pumps].

*see*Section 4.c.6 of this appendix for procedures on measuring or estimating the mass NAF-cuttings discharge fraction (X) for dual gradient drilling seafloor discharges performed to ensure proper operation of subsea pumps). The mass NAF-cuttings discharge fraction (X) combines the mass of NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharged from a particular discharge over a set period of time with the total mass of NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharged into the ocean during the same period of time (

*see*Addendum A and B of this appendix). The mass NAF-cuttings discharge fraction (X) for each discharge is calculated by direct measurement as:

*i*= (F

*i*)/(G)[6]

*i*= Mass NAF-cuttings discharge fraction for NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharge “i”, (unitless)

*i*= Mass of NAF-cuttings discharged from NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharge “i” over a specified period of time (

*see*Addendum A and B of this appendix), (kg)

*i*, (kg)

*i*) must be determined by: (a) Direct measurement (

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix); (b) using the following default values of 0.85 and 0.15 for the cuttings dryer (e.g., horizontal centrifuge, vertical centrifuge, squeeze press, High-G linear shakers) and fines removal unit (e.g., decanting centrifuges, mud cleaners), respectively, when the operator is only discharging from the cuttings dryer and the fines removal unit; or (c) using direct measurement of “F

*i*” (

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix) for fines and accumulated solids, using Equation 6A of this appendix to calculate “G

*EST*” for use as “G” in Equation 6 of this Appendix, and calculating the mass (kg) of NAF-cuttings discharged from the cuttings dryer (F

*i*) as the difference between the mass of “G

*EST*” calculated in Equation 6A of this appendix (kg) and the sum of all fines and accumulated solids mass directly measured (kg) (

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix).

*EST*= Estimated mass of all NAF-cuttings discharges into the ocean during the same period of time as used to calculate F

*i*(

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix), (kg)[6A]

*EST*= Hole Volume (bbl) × (396.9 kg/bbl) × (1 Z/100)

*see*§§ 435.13. and 435.15).

^{2})] × Average Rate of Penetration (feet/hr) × period of time (min) used to calculate F

*i*(

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix) × (1 hr/60 min) × (1 bbl/5.61 ft

^{3}) × (1 ft/12 in)

^{2}

^{2}) = (3.14 × [Bit Diameter (in)]

^{2})/4

*i*(

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix)

*i*(

*see*Equation 6 of this appendix)

*i*) equal to 1.0.

*T*) is calculated every time a set of retorts is performed. The single total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings value (

*T*) is calculated as:

*T,j*= Σ(X

*i*)×(

*i*)[7]

*T,j*= Total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings value for retort set “j” (unitless as percentage, %)

*i*= Mass NAF-cuttings discharge fraction for NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharge “i”, (unitless)

*i*= Mass percent NAF base fluid retained on the cuttings for NAF-cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids discharge “i” , (unitless as percentage, %)

*i*= 1.

*T,j*equal to

*i*.

*well*) is the compliance value that is compared with the “maximum weighted mass ratio averaged over all NAF well sections” BAT discharge limitations (

*see*the table in § 435.13 and footnote 5 of the table in § 435.43) or the “maximum weighted mass ratio averaged over all NAF well sections” NSPS discharge limitations (

*see*the table in § 435.15 and footnote 5 of the table in § 435.45). The weighted mass ratio averaged over all NAF well sections (

*well*) is calculated as the arithmetic average of all total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings values (

*T*) and is given by the following expression:

*well*= [j=1 to j=n Σ (

*T,j*)]/n[8]

*well*= Weighted mass ratio averaged over all NAF well sections (unitless as percentage, %)

*T,j*= Total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings value for retort set “j” (unitless as percentage, %)

*i.e.*, displaced interfaces, accumulated solids in sand traps, pit clean-out solids, or centrifuge discharges while cutting mud weight) shall be mass averaged with the arithmetic average of all total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings values (see Equation 8 of this appendix). An additional sampling interval shall be added to the calculation of the weighted mass ratio averaged over all NAF well sections (

*well*). The mass fraction of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (X

*SVD*) will be determined by dividing the mass of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (F

*SVD*) by the total mass of NAF-cuttings discharges for the well drilling operation (G

*WELL*F

*SVD*).

*SVD*= F

*SVD*/ (G

*WELL*F

*SVD*)[9]

*SVD*= mass fraction of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (unitless)

*SVD*= mass of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (kg)

*WELL*= mass of total NAF-cuttings from the well (kg)

*SVD*) shall be determined by multiplying the density of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (ρ

*svd*) times the volume of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (V

*SVD*).

*SVD*= ρ

*svd*× V

*SVD*[10]

*SVD*= mass of small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (kg)

*svd*= density of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (kg/bbl)

*SVD*= volume of the small volume NAF-cuttings discharges (bbl)

*SVD*) shall be either: (a) Be measured or (b) use default values of 10 bbl of SBF for each interface loss and 75 bbl of SBM for pit cleanout per well.

*WELL*) shall be either: (a) Measured; or (b) calculated by multiplying 1.0 plus the arithmetic average of all total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings values [see Equation 8 of this appendix] times the total hole volume (V

*WELL*) for all NAF well sections times a default value for the density the formation of 2.5 g/cm

^{3}(396.9 kg/bbl).

*WELL*= total mass of NAF-cuttings discharges for the well (kg)

*T,j*)]/n = see Equation 8 of this appendix (unitless as a percentage)

*WELL*= total hole volume (V

*WELL*) for all NAF well sections (bbl)

*WELL*) will be calculated as:

*WELL*becomes:

*see*Section 2.4, Addendum A of this appendix) when all NAF cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids for that sampling interval are retained for no discharge. A zero discharge interval shall be at least 500 feet up to a maximum of three per day. This action has the effect of setting the total mass percent NAF base fluid retained on cuttings value (

*T*) at zero for that NAF sampling interval when all NAF cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids are retained for no discharge.

*i.e.,*bias or inaccuracy). Operators shall collect NAF-cuttings samples near the point of origin and before the solids and liquid fractions of the stream have a chance to separate from one another. For example, operators shall collect shale shaker NAF-cuttings samples at the point where NAF-cuttings are coming off the shale shaker and not from a holding container downstream where separation of larger particles from the liquid can take place.

*see*Section 2.4 of this addendum). Operators shall collect a single discrete NAF-cuttings sample for each NAF-cuttings waste stream discharged to the ocean during every sampling interval.

*see*Equation 6, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part) shall also be used for the retort analysis (

*see*Equations 1-5, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part).

*i.e.,*greater than 500 linear NAF feet advancement of drill bit per day) shall collect and analyze one set of NAF-cuttings samples per 500 linear NAF feet of footage drilled. Operators are not required to collect and analyze more than three sets of NAF-cuttings samples per day (

*i.e.,*three sampling intervals). Operators performing zero discharge of all NAF-cuttings (

*i.e.,*all NAF cuttings, fines, or accumulated solids retained for no discharge) shall use the following periods to count sampling intervals: (1) One sampling interval per day when drilling is less than 500 linear NAF feet advancement of drill bit per day; and (2) one sampling interval per 500 linear NAF feet of footage drilled with a maximum of three sampling intervals per day.

*i*, kg) and sum total mass (G, kg) (

*see*Equation 6, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part) over a representative period of time (e.g., <10 minutes) during steady-state conditions for each sampling interval (

*see*Section 2.4 of this addendum). The operator shall ensure that all NAF-cuttings are capture for mass analysis during the same sampling time period (e.g., <10 minutes) at approximately the same time (

*i.e.,*all individual mass samples collected within one hour of each other).

^{3}/s) of the NAF-cuttings stream and the sampling time period (e.g., <10 minutes). Consequently, different solids control equipment units producing different NAF-cuttings waste streams at different volumetric flow rates will produce different size samples for the same period of time. Operators shall use appropriately sized sample containers for each NAF-cuttings waste stream to ensure no NAF-cuttings are spilled during sample collection. Operators shall use the same time period (e.g., <10 minutes) to collect NAF-cuttings samples from each NAF-cuttings waste stream. Each NAF-cuttings sample size shall be at least one gallon. Operators shall clearly mark each container to identify each NAF-cuttings sample.

*see*Equation 6, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part). Operators with only one NAF-cuttings discharge may skip this step (

*see*Section 4.c.4, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part).

*see*Equations 1-5, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part). Operators shall start the retort analyses no more than two hours after collecting the first individual mass sample for the sampling interval .

*i.e.*, mass balance requirements (

*see*Section 4.b, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part) are satisfied]. Operators shall immediately re-run the retort analyses if the mass balance requirements (

*see*Equation 4, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part) are not within a tolerance of 5% (

*see*Section 4.b, Equation 4, appendix 7 of subpart A of this part).

*see*Section 1.1 of this addendum) for each sampling interval (

*see*Section 2.4 of this addendum) using the procedures outlined in appendix 7 of subpart A of this part.

*see*Section 3.1 of this addendum); (3) mass and volume of each NAF-cuttings sample; (4) measured depth (feet) at NAF-cuttings sample collection (

*see*Section 2.2 of this addendum); (5) respective linear feet of hole drilled represented by the NAF-cuttings sample (feet); and (6) the drill bit diameter (inches) used to generate the NAF-cuttings sample cuttings.

*T*) for each sampling interval (

*see*Section 2.4 of this addendum) using the procedures outlined in appendix 7 of subpart A of this part.

*T*) for each NAF-cuttings sampling interval: (1) Date and starting and stopping times of NAF-cuttings sample collection and retort analyses; (2) measured depth of well (feet) at start of NAF-cuttings sample collection (

*see*Section 2.2 of this addendum); (3) respective linear feet of hole drilled represented by the NAF-cuttings sample (feet); (4) the drill bit diameter (inches) used to generate the NAF-cuttings sample cuttings; and (5) annotation when zero discharge of NAF-cuttings is performed.

*well*) using the procedures outlined in appendix 7 of subpart A of this part.

*well*) for each NAF well: (1) Starting and stopping dates of NAF well sections; (2) measured depth (feet) of all NAF well sections; (3) total number of sampling intervals (

*see*Section 2.4 and Section 2.6 of this addendum); (4) number of sampling intervals tabulated during any zero discharge operations; (5) total volume of zero discharged NAF-cuttings over entire NAF well sections; and (6) identification of whether BMPs were employed (

*see*Addendum B of appendix 7 of subpart A of this part).

*i.e.*, Guidance Document for Developing Best Management Practices (BMP)” (EPA 833-B-93-004, U.S. EPA, 1993)), and draft industry BMPs. These common elements represent the appropriate mix of broad directions needed to complete a BMP Plan along with specific tasks common to all drilling operations.

*see*30 CFR 250.300) or other Federal or State requirements and incorporate any part of such plans into the BMP Plan by reference.

*see*Equations 1 through 8) to determine the arithmetic average (

*well*) of the retort analyses taken during the first 0.33 X feet drilled with NAF.

*well*) of the retort analyses taken during the first 0.33 X feet drilled with NAF is less than or equal to the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard (

*see*§§ 435.13 and 435.15), retort monitoring of cuttings may cease for that particular well. The same BMPs and drilling fluid used during the first 0.33 X feet shall be used for all remaining NAF sections for that particular well.

*well*) of the retort analyses taken during the first 0.33 X feet drilled with NAF is greater the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard (

*see*§§ 435.13 and 435.15), retort monitoring shall continue for the following (second) 0.33 X feet drilled with NAF where X is the anticipated total feet to be drilled with NAF for that particular well. The retort analyses for the first and second 0.33 X feet shall be documented in the well retort log.

*well*) of the retort analyses taken during the first 0.66 X feet (

*i.e.*, retort analyses taken from first and second 0.33 X feet) drilled with NAF is less than or equal to the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard (

*see*§§ 435.13 and 435.15), retort monitoring of cuttings may cease for that particular well. The same BMPs and drilling fluid used during the first 0.66 X feet shall be used for all remaining NAF sections for that particular well.

*well*) of the retort analyses taken during the first 0.66 X feet (

*i.e.*, retort analyses taken from first and second 0.33 X feet) drilled with NAF is greater than the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard (

*see*§§ 435.13 and 435.15), retort monitoring shall continue for all remaining NAF sections for that particular well. The retort analyses for all NAF sections shall be documented in the well retort log.

*well*) of the retort analyses taken over all NAF sections for the entire well is greater that the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard (

*see*§§ 435.13 and 435.15), the operator is in violation of the base fluid retained on cuttings limitation or standard and shall submit notification of these monitoring values in accordance with NPDES permit requirements. Additionally, the operator shall, as part of the BMP Plan, initiate a reevaluation and modification to the BMP Plan in conjunction with equipment vendors and/or industry specialists.

**Title 40 published on 2014-07-01**.

No entries appear in the Federal Register **after** this date, for 40 CFR Part 435.

**Title 40 published on 2014-07-01**

The following are **ALL** rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to *40 CFR Part 435* **after** this date.

GPO FDSys XML | Text type regulations.gov FR Doc. 2015-07819 RIN 2040-AF35 EPA-HQ-OW-2014-0598 FRL-9917-78-OW ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed rule. Comments on this proposed rule must be received on or before June 8, 2015. EPA will conduct a public hearing on the proposed pretreatment standards on May 29, 2015 at 1:00 p.m. in the EPA East Building, Room 1153, 1201 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC. 40 CFR Part 435 EPA proposes a Clean Water Act (CWA) regulation that would better protect human health and the environment and protect the operational integrity of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) by establishing pretreatment standards that would prevent the discharge of pollutants in wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and gas extraction facilities to POTWs. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction wastewater can be generated in large quantities and contains constituents that are potentially harmful to human health and the environment. Because they are not typical of POTW influent wastewater, some UOG extraction wastewater constituents can be discharged, untreated, from the POTW to the receiving stream; can disrupt the operation of the POTW ( e.g., by inhibiting biological treatment); can accumulate in biosolids (sewage sludge), limiting their use; and can facilitate the formation of harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). Based on the information collected by EPA, the requirements in this proposal reflect current industry practices for unconventional oil and gas extraction facilities, therefore, EPA does not project the proposed rule will impose any costs or lead to pollutant removals, but will ensure that such current industry best practice is maintained over time.