42 CFR § 110.74 - Disapproval of benefits.
(a) If the Secretary determines that a requester is not eligible for payments under the Program, the Secretary will disapprove the Request for Benefits and provide the requester, or his or her representative, with written notice of the basis for the disapproval, and the right to reconsideration of the determination, as provided in § 110.90.
(b) The Secretary may disapprove a Request for Benefits even before the requester has submitted all the required documentation (e.g., the Secretary may determine that a requester did not meet the filing deadline, or that a covered countermeasure was not used or administered).
(c) The Secretary may re-open a disapproved Request for Benefits on her own accord should medical or scientific evidence later become available to justify a re-determination of the disapproval of eligibility or payments. In extraordinary circumstances, to be determined at the Secretary's discretion, she may re-open a disapproved Request for Benefits even after the requester has exercised the right to reconsideration and the disapproval determination has been upheld in accordance with the procedures set out in § 110.90.