42 CFR § 402.208 - Factors considered in determining whether to exclude, and the length of exclusion.
(1) The nature of the claims and the circumstances under which they were presented.
(2) The degree of culpability, the history of prior offenses, and the financial condition of the person presenting the claims.
(3) The total number of acts in which the violation occurred.
(4) The dollar amount at issue (Medicare Trust Fund dollars or beneficiary out-of-pocket expenses).
(5) The prior history of the person insofar as its willingness or refusal to comply with requests to correct said violations.
(6) Any other facts bearing on the nature and seriousness of the person's misconduct.
(7) Any other matters that justice may require.
(b) Criteria to be considered. As a guideline for taking into account the general factors listed in paragraph (a) of this section, the initiating agency may consider any one or more of the circumstances listed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, as applicable. The respondent, in his or her written response to the notice of intent to exclude (that is, the proposed exclusion), may provide information concerning potential mitigating circumstances.
(1) Aggravating circumstances. An aggravating circumstance may be any of the following:
(i) The services or incidents were of several types and occurred over an extended period of time.
(ii) There were numerous services or incidents, or the nature and circumstances indicate a pattern of claims or requests for payment or a pattern of incidents, or whether a specific segment of the population was targeted.
(iii) Whether the person was held liable for criminal, civil, or administrative sanctions in connection with a program covered by this part or any other public or private program of payment for health care items or services at any time before the incident or whether the person presented any claim or made any request for payment that included an item or service subject to a determination under § 402.1.
(iv) There is proof that the person engaged in wrongful conduct, other than the specific conduct upon which liability is based, relating to government programs and in connection with the delivery of a health care item or service. The statute of limitations governing civil money penalty proceedings at section 1128A(c)(1) of the Act does not apply to proof of other wrongful conducts as an aggravating circumstance.
(v) The wrongful conduct had an adverse impact on the financial integrity of the Medicare program or its beneficiaries.
(vi) The person was the subject of an adverse action by any other Federal, State, or local government agency or board, and the adverse action is based on the same set of circumstances that serves as a basis for the imposition of the exclusion.
(vii) The noncompliance resulted in a financial loss to the Medicare program of at least $5,000.
(viii) The number of instances for which full, accurate, and complete disclosure was not made as required, or provided as requested, and the significance of the undisclosed information.
(2) Mitigating circumstances. A mitigating circumstance may be any of the following:
(i) All incidents of noncompliance were few in nature and of the same type, occurred within a short period of time, and the total amount claimed or requested for the items or services provided was less than $1,500.
(ii) The claim(s) or request(s) for payment for the item(s) or service(s) provided by the person were the result of an unintentional and unrecognized error in the person's process for presenting claims or requesting payment, and the person took corrective steps promptly after the error was discovered.
(iii) Previous cooperation with a law enforcement or regulatory entity resulted in convictions, exclusions, investigations, reports for weaknesses, or civil money penalties against other persons.
(vi) The person had a documented mental, emotional, or physical condition before or during the commission of the noncompliant act(s) and that condition reduces the person's culpability for the acts in question.
(vii) The completeness and timeliness of refunding to the Medicare Trust Fund or Medicare beneficiaries any inappropriate payments.
(viii) The degree of culpability of the person in failing to provide timely and complete refunds.
(3) Other matters as justice may require. Other circumstances of an aggravating or mitigating nature are taken into account if, in the interest of justice, those circumstances require either a reduction or increase in the sanction to ensure achievement for the purposes of this subpart.
(4) Initiating agency authority. Nothing in this section limits the authority of the initiating agency to settle any issue or case as provided by § 402.17, or to compromise any penalty and assessment as provided by § 402.115.
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