42 CFR 403.310 - Reduction in payments.
(a) General rule. If CMS determines that the satisfactory assurances required of a State under § 403.304(c) and, if applicable, § 403.304(d) have not been met, or will not be met, with respect to any 36-month period, CMS will reduce Medicare payments to individual hospitals being reimbursed under the State's system or, if applicable, under the Medicare payment system, in an amount equal to the amount by which the Medicare payments under the system exceed the amount of Medicare payments to such hospitals that otherwise would have been made not using the State system. The amount of the recoupment will include, when appropriate, interest charges computed in accordance with § 405.378 of this chapter.
(b) Recoupment procedures. The amount of the overpayment will be recouped on a proportionate basis from each of those hospitals that received payments under the State system that exceeded the payments they would have received under the Medicare payment system. Each hospital's share of the aggregate excess payment will be determined on the basis of a comparison of the hospital's proportionate share of the aggregate payment received under the State system that is in excess of what the aggregate payment would have been under the Medicare payment system. Recoupments may be accomplished by a hospital's direct payment to the Medicare program or by offsets to future payments made to the hospital.
(c) Alternative recoupment procedures. As an alternative to the recoupment procedures described in paragraph (b) of this section and subject to CMS's acceptance, the State may provide, by legislation or legally binding regulations, procedures for the recoupment of the amount of payments that exceed the amount of payments that otherwise would have been paid by Medicare if the State system had not been in effect.
(d) Rule for existing Medicare demonstration projects. In cases of existing Medicare demonstration projects where the expenditure test is to be applied by a rate of increase factor, the amount of the excess payment will be determined, for the three hospital cost reporting periods beginning before October 1, 1986, by a comparison of the State system's rate of increase to the national rate of increase. Recoupment of excessive payments will be assessed and recouped as described in this section.