42 CFR 412.106 - Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

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§ 412.106 Special treatment: Hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients.

(a) General considerations.

(1) The factors considered in determining whether a hospital qualifies for a payment adjustment include the number of beds, the number of patient days, and the hospital's location.

(i) The number of beds in a hospital is determined in accordance with § 412.105(b).

(ii) For purposes of this section, the number of patient days in a hospital includes only those days attributable to units or wards of the hospital providing acute care services generally payable under the prospective payment system and excludes patient days associated with -

(A) Beds in excluded distinct part hospital units;

(B) Beds otherwise countable under this section used for outpatient observation services, skilled nursing swing-bed services, or inpatient hospice services;

(C) Beds in a unit or ward that is not occupied to provide a level of care that would be payable under the acute care hospital inpatient prospective payment system at any time during the 3 preceding months (the beds in the unit or ward are to be excluded from the determination of available bed days during the current month); and

(D) Beds in a unit or ward that is otherwise occupied (to provide a level of care that would be payable under the acute care hospital inpatient prospective payment system) that could not be made available for inpatient occupancy within 24 hours for 30 consecutive days.

(iii) The hospital's location, in an urban or rural area, is determined in accordance with the definitions in § 412.64, except that a reclassification that results from an urban hospital reclassified as rural as set forth in § 412.103 is classified as rural.

(2) The payment adjustment is applied to the hospital's DRG revenue for inpatient operating costs based on DRG-adjusted prospective payment rates for inpatient operating costs, excluding outlier payments for inpatient operating costs under subpart F of this part and additional payments made under the provisions of § 412.105.

(b) Determination of a hospital's disproportionate patient percentage -

(1) General rule. A hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is determined by adding the results of two computations and expressing that sum as a percentage.

(2) First computation: Federal fiscal year. For each month of the Federal fiscal year in which the hospital's cost reporting period begins, CMS -

(i) Determines the number of patient days that -

(A) Are associated with discharges occurring during each month; and

(B) Are furnished to patients who during that month were entitled to both Medicare Part A (including Medicare Advantage (Part C)) and SSI, excluding those patients who received only State supplementation;

(ii) Adds the results for the whole period; and

(iii) Divides the number determined under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section by the total number of days that -

(A) Are associated with discharges that occur during that period; and

(B) Are furnished to patients entitled to Medicare Part A (including Medicare Advantage (Part C)).

(3) First computation: Cost reporting period. If a hospital prefers that CMS use its cost reporting period instead of the Federal fiscal year, it must furnish to CMS, through its intermediary, a written request including the hospital's name, provider number, and cost reporting period end date. This exception will be performed once per hospital per cost reporting period, and the resulting percentage becomes the hospital's official Medicare Part A/SSI percentage for that period.

(4) Second computation. The fiscal intermediary determines, for the same cost reporting period used for the first computation, the number of the hospital's patient days of service for which patients were eligible for Medicaid but not entitled to Medicare Part A, and divides that number by the total number of patient days in the same period. For purposes of this second computation, the following requirements apply:

(i) For purposes of this computation, a patient is deemed eligible for Medicaid on a given day only if the patient is eligible for inpatient hospital services under an approved State Medicaid plan or under a waiver authorized under section 1115(a)(2) of the Act on that day, regardless of whether particular items or services were covered or paid under the State plan or the authorized waiver.

(ii) Effective with discharges occurring on or after January 20, 2000, for purposes of counting days under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, hospitals may include all days attributable to populations eligible for Title XIX matching payments through a waiver approved under section 1115 of the Social Security Act.

(iii) The hospital has the burden of furnishing data adequate to prove eligibility for each Medicaid patient day claimed under this paragraph, and of verifying with the State that a patient was eligible for Medicaid during each claimed patient hospital day.

(iv) For cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2009, the hospital must report the days in the numerator of the fraction in the second computation in a cost reporting period based on the date of discharge, the date of admission, or the dates of service. If a hospital seeks to change its methodology for reporting days in the numerator of the fraction in the second computation, the hospital must notify CMS, through its fiscal intermediary or MAC, in writing at least 30 days before the beginning of the cost reporting period in which the change would apply. The written notification must specify the methodology the hospital will use, the cost reporting period to which the requested change would apply, and the current methodology being used. Such a change will be effective only on the first day of a cost reporting period. If a hospital changes its methodology for reporting such days, CMS or the fiscal intermediary or MAC may adjust the number of days reported for a cost reporting period if it determines that any of those days have been counted in a prior cost reporting period.

(5) Disproportionate patient percentage. The intermediary adds the results of the first computation made under either paragraph (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section and the second computation made under paragraph (b)(4) of this section and expresses that sum as a percentage. This is the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage, and is used in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Criteria for classification. A hospital is classified as a “disproportionate share” hospital under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The hospital's disproportionate patient percentage, as determined under paragraph (b)(5) of this section, is at least equal to one of the following:

(i) 15 percent, if the hospital is located in an urban area, and has 100 or more beds, or is located in a rural area and has 500 or more beds.

(ii) 30 percent for discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, and 15 percent for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, if the hospital is located in a rural area and either has more than 100 beds and fewer than 500 beds or is classified as a sole community hospital under § 412.92.

(iii) 40 percent for discharges before April 1, 2001, and 15 percent for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, if the hospital is located in an urban area and has fewer than 100 beds.

(iv) 45 percent for discharges before April 1, 2001, and 15 percent for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, if the hospital is located in a rural area and has 100 or fewer beds.

(2) The hospital is located in an urban area, has 100 or more beds, and can demonstrate that, during its cost reporting period, more than 30 percent of its net inpatient care revenues are derived from State and local government payments for care furnished to indigent patients.

(d) Payment adjustment factor -

(1) Method of adjustment. Subject to the reduction factor set forth in paragraph (e) of this section, if a hospital serves a disproportionate number of low-income patients, its DRG revenues for inpatient operating costs are increased by an adjustment factor as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(2) Payment adjustment factors.

(i) If the hospital meets the criteria of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the payment adjustment factor is equal to one of the following:

(A) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is as follows:

(1) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 1990, and before January 1, 1991, 5.62 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after January 1, 1991, and before October 1, 1993, 5.62 percent plus 70 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(3) For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1994, 5.88 percent plus 80 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(4) For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1994, 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(B) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is as follows:

(1) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 1990, and before October 1, 1993, 2.5 percent plus 60 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1993, 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital meets the criteria of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the payment adjustment factor is equal to one of the following:

(A) If the hospital is classified as a rural referral center -

(1) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the payment adjustment factor is 4 percent plus 60 percent of the difference between the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage and 30 percent.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, and before April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 19.3 percent and less than 30 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent.

(iii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than or equal to 30 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent plus 60 percent of the difference between 30 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(3) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than or equal to 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(B) If the hospital is classified as a sole community hospital -

(1) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the payment adjustment factor is 10 percent.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is equal to or greater than 19.3 percent and less than 30 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent.

(iii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is equal to or greater than 30 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 10 percent.

(3) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than or equal to 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(iii) The maximum payment adjustment factor is 12 percent.

(C) If the hospital is classified as both a rural referral center and a sole community hospital, the payment adjustment is -

(1) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the greater of -

(i) 10 percent; or

(ii) 4 percent plus 60 percent of the difference between the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage and 30 percent.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before April 1, 2004, the greater of the adjustments determined under paragraphs (d)(2)(ii)(A) or (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section.

(3) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(D) If the hospital is classified as a rural hospital and is not classified as either a sole community hospital or a rural referral center, and has 100 or more beds -

(1) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the payment adjustment factor is 4 percent.

(2) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage and 15 percent.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is equal to or greater than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent.

(3) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(i) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than or equal to 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(ii) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(iii) The maximum payment adjustment factor is 12 percent.

(iii) If the hospital meets the criteria of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section -

(A) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the payment adjustment factor is 5 percent.

(B) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(1) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage and 15 percent.

(2) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is equal to or greater than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent.

(C) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(1) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than or equal to 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(2) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(3) The maximum payment adjustment factor is 12 percent.

(iv) If the hospital meets the criteria of paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section -

(A) For discharges occurring before April 1, 2001, the payment adjustment factor is 4 percent.

(B) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(1) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage and 15 percent.

(2) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is equal to or greater than 19.3 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.25 percent.

(C) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, the following applies:

(1) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is less than or equal to 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 2.5 percent plus 65 percent of the difference between 15 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(2) If the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage is greater than 20.2 percent, the applicable payment adjustment factor is 5.88 percent plus 82.5 percent of the difference between 20.2 percent and the hospital's disproportionate patient percentage.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(D) of this section, the maximum payment adjustment factor is 12 percent.

(D) Effective for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2006, for a hospital that is classified as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital under § 412.108, the payment adjustment factor limitation specified in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(C)(3) does not apply.

(v) If the hospital meets the criteria of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the payment adjustment factor is as follows:

(A) 30 percent for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 1990, and before October 1, 1991.

(B) 35 percent for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1991.

(e) Reduction in payments beginning FY 1998. The amounts otherwise payable to a hospital under paragraph (d) of this section are reduced by the following:

(1) For FY 1998, 1 percent.

(2) For FY 1999, 2 percent.

(3) For FY 2000, 3 percent.

(4) For FY 2001:

(i) For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2000 and before April 1, 2001, 3 percent.

(ii) For discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001 and before October 1, 2001, 1 percent.

(5) For FY 2002, 3 percent.

(6) For FYs 2003 and thereafter, 0 percent.

(f) Empirically justified Medicare DSH payments. Effective for discharges on or after October 1, 2013, the amounts otherwise payable to a hospital under paragraph (d) of this section are reduced by 75 percent.

(g) Additional payment for uncompensated care.

(1) Payment rules. Hospitals that qualify for payments under this section for fiscal year 2014 and each subsequent year, will receive an additional amount equal to the product of the following three factors:

(i) Factor 1. For FY 2014 and each subsequent fiscal year, a factor equal to the difference between:

(A) The most recently available estimates, as calculated by CMS' Office of the Actuary, of the aggregate amount of payments that would be made to such hospitals under paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section if paragraph (f) of this section did not apply for the fiscal year; and

(B) The most recently available estimates, as calculated by CMS' Office of the Actuary, of the aggregate amount of payments that are made to such hospitals pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section for the fiscal year.

(ii) Factor 2. For each of fiscal years 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, a factor equal to 1 minus the percent change in the percent of individuals under the age of 65 who are uninsured (and subtracting from the factor 0.1 percentage point for fiscal year 2014 and 0.2 percentage point for each of fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017), as determined by comparing:

(A) 18 percent, the percent of such individuals who are uninsured in 2013, based on the March 20, 2010 estimate of the “Insured Share of the Nonelderly Population Including All Residents” by the Congressional Budget Office; and

(B) The percent of such individuals who are uninsured in the applicable fiscal year, based on the most recent estimate of the “Insured Share of the Nonelderly Population Including All Residents” by the Congressional Budget Office available at the time of development of the annual final rule for the hospital inpatient prospective payment system.

(iii) Factor 3. A factor equal to the percent, for each inpatient prospective payment system hospital, that represents the quotient of:

(A) The amount of uncompensated care for such hospital as estimated by CMS.

(B) The aggregate amount of uncompensated care as estimated by CMS for all hospitals that are estimated to receive a payment under this section.

(C) For fiscal years 2014 and 2015, CMS will base its estimates of the amount of hospital uncompensated care on the most recent available data on utilization for Medicaid and Medicare SSI patients, as determined by CMS in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(4) of this section. For fiscal year 2016, CMS will base its estimates of the amount of hospital uncompensated care on utilization data for Medicaid and Medicare SSI patients, as determined by CMS in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(4) of this section, using data on Medicaid utilization from 2012 or 2011 cost reports from the most recent HCRIS database extract, the 2012 cost report data submitted to CMS by IHS hospitals, and the most recent available data on Medicare SSI utilization.

(2) Preclusion of administrative and judicial review. There is no administrative or judicial review under sections 1869 or 1878 of the Act, or otherwise, of the following:

(i) Any estimate of the Secretary for the purpose of determining the factors in paragraph (g)(1) of this section; and

(ii) Any period selected by the Secretary for such purposes.

(h) Manner and timing of payments.

(1) Interim payments are made during the payment year to each hospital that is estimated to be eligible for payments under this section at the time of the annual final rule for the hospital inpatient prospective payment system, subject to the final determination of eligibility at the time of cost report settlement for each hospital.

(2) Final payment determinations are made at the time of cost report settlement, based on the final determination of each hospital's eligibility for payment under this section.

[54 FR 36494, Sept. 1, 1989]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 412.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 42 published on 2015-10-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 42 CFR Part 412 after this date.

  • 2015-11-27; vol. 80 # 228 - Friday, November 27, 2015
    1. 80 FR 73998 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
      Final rule and interim final rule with comment period; correction.
      Effective date: This correcting document is effective November 25, 2015. Applicability date: This correcting document is applicable to discharges beginning October 1, 2015.
      42 CFR Part 412