§ 483.470Condition of participation: Physical environment.
(a)Standard: Client living environment.
(1) The facility must not house clients of grossly different ages, developmental levels, and social needs in close physical or social proximity unless the housing is planned to promote the growth and development of all those housed together.
(2) The facility must not segregate clients solely on the basis of their physical disabilities. It must integrate clients who have ambulation deficits or who are deaf, blind, or have seizure disorders, etc., with others of comparable social and intellectual development.
(b)Standard: Client bedrooms.
(1) Bedrooms must—
(i) Be rooms that have at least one outside wall;
(ii) Be equipped with or located near toilet and bathing facilities;
(iii) Accommodate no more than four clients unless granted a variance under paragraph (b)(3) of this section;
(iv) Measure at least 60 square feet per client in multiple client bedrooms and at least 80 square feet in single client bedrooms; and
(v) In all facilities initially certified, or in buildings constructed or with major renovations or conversions on or after October 3, 1988, have walls that extend from floor to ceiling.
(2) If a bedroom is below grade level, it must have a window that—
(i) Is usable as a second means of escape by the client(s) occupying the room; and
(ii) Is no more than 44 inches (measured to the window sill) above the floor unless the facility is surveyed under the Health Care Occupancy Chapter of the Life Safety Code, in which case the window must be no more than 36 inches (measured to the window sill) above the floor.
(3) The survey agency may grant a variance from the limit of four clients per room only if a physician who is a member of the interdisciplinary team and who is a qualified intellectual disability professional—
(i) Certifies that each client to be placed in a bedroom housing more than four persons is so severely medically impaired as to require direct and continuous monitoring during sleeping hours; and
(ii) Documents the reasons why housing in a room of only four or fewer persons would not be medically feasible.
(4) The facility must provide each client with—
(i) A separate bed of proper size and height for the convenience of the client;
(ii) A clean, comfortable, mattress;
(iii) Bedding appropriate to the weather and climate; and
(iv) Functional furniture appropriate to the client's needs, and individual closet space in the client's bedroom with clothes racks and shelves accessible to the client.
(c)Standard: Storage space in bedroom. The facility must provide—
(1) Space and equipment for daily out-of-bed activity for all clients who are not yet mobile, except those who have a short-term illness or those few clients for whom out-of-bed activity is a threat to health and safety; and
(2) Suitable storage space, accessible to clients, for personal possessions, such as TVs, radios, prosthetic equipment and clothing.
(d)Standard: Client bathrooms. The facility must—
(1) Provide toilet and bathing facilities appropriate in number, size, and design to meet the needs of the clients;
(2) Provide for individual privacy in toilets, bathtubs, and showers; and
(3) In areas of the facility where clients who have not been trained to regulate water temperature are exposed to hot water, ensure that the temperature of the water does not exceed 110 °Fahrenheit.
(e)Standard: Heating and ventilation.
(1) Each client bedroom in the facility must have—
(i) At least one window to the outside; and
(ii) Direct outside ventilation by means of windows, air conditioning, or mechanical ventilation.
(2) The facility must—
(i) Maintain the temperature and humidity within a normal comfort range by heating, air conditioning or other means; and
(ii) Ensure that the heating apparatus does not constitute a burn or smoke hazard to clients.
(f)Standard: Floors. The facility must have—
(1) Floors that have a resilient, nonabrasive, and slip-resistant surface;
(2) Nonabrasive carpeting, if the area used by clients is carpeted and serves clients who lie on the floor or ambulate with parts of their bodies, other than feet, touching the floor; and
(3) Exposed floor surfaces and floor coverings that promote mobility in areas used by clients, and promote maintenance of sanitary conditions.
(g)Standard: Space and equipment. The facility must—
(1) Provide sufficient space and equipment in dining, living, health services, recreation, and program areas (including adequately equipped and sound treated areas for hearing and other evaluations if they are conducted in the facility) to enable staff to provide clients with needed services as required by this subpart and as identified in each client's individual program plan.
(2) Furnish, maintain in good repair, and teach clients to use and to make informed choices about the use of dentures, eyeglasses, hearing and other communications aids, braces, and other devices identified by the interdisciplinary team as needed by the client.
(3) Provide adequate clean linen and dirty linen storage areas.
(h)Standard: Emergency plan and procedures.
(1) The facility must develop and implement detailed written plans and procedures to meet all potential emergencies and disasters such as fire, severe weather, and missing clients.
(2) The facility must communicate, periodically review, make the plan available, and provide training to the staff.
(i)Standard: Evacuation drills.
(1) The facility must hold evacuation drills at least quarterly for each shift of personnel and under varied conditions to—
(i) Ensure that all personnel on all shifts are trained to perform assigned tasks;
(ii) Ensure that all personnel on all shifts are familiar with the use of the facility's fire protection features; and
(iii) Evaluate the effectiveness of emergency and disaster plans and procedures.
(2) The facility must—
(i) Actually evacuate clients during at least one drill each year on each shift;
(ii) Make special provisions for the evacuation of clients with physical disabilities;
(iii) File a report and evaluation on each evacuation drill;
(iv) Investigate all problems with evacuation drills, including accidents, and take corrective action; and
(v) During fire drills, clients may be evacuated to a safe area in facilities certified under the Health Care Occupancies Chapter of the Life Safety Code.
(3) Facilities must meet the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1) and (2) of this section for any live-in and relief staff they utilize.
(j)Standard: Fire protection—
(1)General. Except as otherwise provided in this section—
(i) The facility must meet the applicable provisions of either the Health Care Occupancies Chapters or the Residential Board and Care Occupancies Chapter of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register has approved the NFPA 101 ® 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, issued January 14, 2000, for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the Code is available for inspection at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Copies may be obtained from the National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269. If any changes in this edition of the Code are incorporated by reference, CMS will publish notice in the Federal Register to announce the changes.
(ii) Chapter 220.127.116.11.2, exception number 2 of the adopted LSC does not apply to a facility.
(2) The State survey agency may apply a single chapter of the LSC to the entire facility or may apply different chapters to different buildings or parts of buildings as permitted by the LSC.
(3) A facility that meets the LSC definition of a residential board and care occupancy must have its evacuation capability evaluated in accordance with the Evacuation Difficulty Index of the Fire Safety Evaluation System for Board and Care facilities (FSES/BC).
(4) If CMS finds that the State has a fire and safety code imposed by State law that adequately protects a facility's clients, CMS may allow the State survey agency to apply the State's fire and safety code instead of the LSC.
(5) Beginning March 13, 2006, a facility must be in compliance with Chapter 19.2.9, Emergency Lighting.
(6) Beginning March 13, 2006, Chapter 18.104.22.168.2, exception number 2 does not apply to a facility.
(7)Facilities that meet the LSC definition of a health care occupancy.
(i) After consideration of State survey agency recommendations, CMS may waive, for appropriate periods, specific provisions of the Life Safety Code if the following requirements are met:
(A) The waiver would not adversely affect the health and safety of the clients.
(B) Rigid application of specific provisions would result in an unreasonable hardship for the facility.
(ii) Notwithstanding any provisions of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code to the contrary, a facility may install alcohol-based hand rub dispensers if—
(A) Use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers does not conflict with any State or local codes that prohibit or otherwise restrict the placement of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in health care facilities;
(B) The dispensers are installed in a manner that minimizes leaks and spills that could lead to falls;
(C) The dispensers are installed in a manner that adequately protects against inappropriate access;
(D) The dispensers are installed in accordance with chapter 22.214.171.124 or chapter 126.96.36.199 of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, as amended by NFPA Temporary Interim Amendment 00-1(101), issued by the Standards Council of the National Fire Protection Association on April 15, 2004. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register has approved NFPA Temporary Interim Amendment 00-1(101) for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy of the amendment is available for inspection at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD and at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC. Copies may be obtained from the National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269; and
(E) The dispensers are maintained in accordance with dispenser manufacturer guidelines.
(k)Standard: Paint. The facility must—
(1) Use lead-free paint inside the facility; and
(2) Remove or cover interior paint or plaster containing lead so that it is not accessible to clients.
(l)Standard: Infection control.
(1) The facility must provide a sanitary environment to avoid sources and transmission of infections. There must be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infection and communicable diseases.
(2) The facility must implement successful corrective action in affected problem areas.
(3) The facility must maintain a record of incidents and corrective actions related to infections.
(4) The facility must prohibit employees with symptoms or signs of a communicable disease from direct contact with clients and their food.