42 CFR 483.470 - Condition of participation: Physical environment.
(a)Standard: Client living environment.
(1) The facility must not house clients of grossly different ages, developmental levels, and social needs in close physical or social proximity unless the housing is planned to promote the growth and development of all those housed together.
(2) The facility must not segregate clients solely on the basis of their physical disabilities. It must integrate clients who have ambulation deficits or who are deaf, blind, or have seizure disorders, etc., with others of comparable social and intellectual development.
(b)Standard: Client bedrooms.
(1) Bedrooms must -
(i) Be rooms that have at least one outside wall;
(ii) Be equipped with or located near toilet and bathing facilities;
(iii) Accommodate no more than four clients unless granted a variance under paragraph (b)(3) of this section;
(iv) Measure at least 60 square feet per client in multiple client bedrooms and at least 80 square feet in single client bedrooms; and
(2) If a bedroom is below grade level, it must have a window that -
(i) Is usable as a second means of escape by the client(s) occupying the room; and
(ii) Is no more than 44 inches (measured to the window sill) above the floor unless the facility is surveyed under the Health Care Occupancy Chapter of the Life Safety Code, in which case the window must be no more than 36 inches (measured to the window sill) above the floor.
(3) The survey agency may grant a variance from the limit of four clients per room only if a physician who is a member of the interdisciplinary team and who is a qualified intellectual disability professional -
(i) Certifies that each client to be placed in a bedroom housing more than four persons is so severely medically impaired as to require direct and continuous monitoring during sleeping hours; and
(ii) Documents the reasons why housing in a room of only four or fewer persons would not be medically feasible.
(4) The facility must provide each client with -
(i) A separate bed of proper size and height for the convenience of the client;
(ii) A clean, comfortable, mattress;
(iii) Bedding appropriate to the weather and climate; and
(iv) Functional furniture appropriate to the client's needs, and individual closet space in the client's bedroom with clothes racks and shelves accessible to the client.
(c)Standard: Storage space in bedroom. The facility must provide -
(1) Space and equipment for daily out-of-bed activity for all clients who are not yet mobile, except those who have a short-term illness or those few clients for whom out-of-bed activity is a threat to health and safety; and
(2) Suitable storage space, accessible to clients, for personal possessions, such as TVs, radios, prosthetic equipment and clothing.
(d)Standard: Client bathrooms. The facility must -
(1) Provide toilet and bathing facilities appropriate in number, size, and design to meet the needs of the clients;
(2) Provide for individual privacy in toilets, bathtubs, and showers; and
(e)Standard: Heating and ventilation.
(1) Each client bedroom in the facility must have -
(i) At least one window to the outside; and
(ii) Direct outside ventilation by means of windows, air conditioning, or mechanical ventilation.
(2) The facility must -
(i) Maintain the temperature and humidity within a normal comfort range by heating, air conditioning or other means; and
(ii) Ensure that the heating apparatus does not constitute a burn or smoke hazard to clients.
(f)Standard: Floors. The facility must have -
(1) Floors that have a resilient, nonabrasive, and slip-resistant surface;
(g)Standard: Space and equipment. The facility must -
(1) Provide sufficient space and equipment in dining, living, health services, recreation, and program areas (including adequately equipped and sound treated areas for hearing and other evaluations if they are conducted in the facility) to enable staff to provide clients with needed services as required by this subpart and as identified in each client's individual program plan.
(2) Furnish, maintain in good repair, and teach clients to use and to make informed choices about the use of dentures, eyeglasses, hearing and other communications aids, braces, and other devices identified by the interdisciplinary team as needed by the client.
(3) Provide adequate clean linen and dirty linen storage areas.
(i)Standard: Evacuation drills.
(1) The facility must hold evacuation drills at least quarterly for each shift of personnel and under varied conditions to -
(i) Ensure that all personnel on all shifts are trained to perform assigned tasks;
(ii) Ensure that all personnel on all shifts are familiar with the use of the facility's fire protection features; and
(iii) Evaluate the effectiveness of emergency and disaster plans and procedures.
(2) The facility must -
(i) Actually evacuate clients during at least one drill each year on each shift;
(ii) Make special provisions for the evacuation of clients with physical disabilities;
(iii) File a report and evaluation on each evacuation drill;
(iv) Investigate all problems with evacuation drills, including accidents, and take corrective action; and
(v) During fire drills, clients may be evacuated to a safe area in facilities certified under the Health Care Occupancies Chapter of the Life Safety Code.
(3) Facilities must meet the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1) and (2) of this section for any live-in and relief staff they utilize.
(j)Standard: Fire protection -
(1)General. Except as otherwise provided in this section -
(i) The facility must meet the applicable provisions of either the Health Care Occupancies Chapters or the Residential Board and Care Occupancies Chapter and must proceed in accordance with the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101 and Tentative Interim Amendments TIA 12-1, TIA 12-2, TIA 12-3, and TIA 12-4.)
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, corridor doors and doors to rooms containing flammable or combustible materials must be provided with positive latching hardware. Roller latches are prohibited on such doors.
(iii) Chapters 126.96.36.199.2 and 188.8.131.52.2 of the adopted 2012 Life Safety Code do not apply to a facility.
(iv) Beginning July 5, 2019, an ICF-IID must be in compliance with Chapter 184.108.40.206.7.1, Sprinklers in attics, or Chapter 220.127.116.11.7.2, Heat detection systems in attics of the Life Safety Code.
(2) The State survey agency may apply a single chapter of the LSC to the entire facility or may apply different chapters to different buildings or parts of buildings as permitted by the LSC.
(3) A facility that meets the LSC definition of a residential board and care occupancy must have its evacuation capability evaluated in accordance with the Evacuation Difficulty Index of the Fire Safety Evaluation System for Board and Care facilities (FSES/BC).
(4) If CMS finds that the State has a fire and safety code imposed by State law that adequately protects a facility's clients, CMS may allow the State survey agency to apply the State's fire and safety code instead of the LSC.
(5)Facilities that meet the Life Safety Code definition of a health care occupancy.
(i) In consideration of a recommendation by the State survey agency or Accrediting Organization or at the discretion of the Secretary, may waive, for periods deemed appropriate, specific provisions of the Life Safety Code, which would result in unreasonable hardship upon a residential board and care facility, but only if the waiver will not adversely affect the health and safety of the patients.
(ii) A facility may install alcohol-based hand rub dispensers if the dispensers are installed in a manner that adequately protects against inappropriate access.
(iii) When a sprinkler system is shut down for more than 10 hours, the ICF-IID must:
(A) Evacuate the building or portion of the building affected by the system outage until the system is back in service, or
(B) Establish a fire watch until the system is back in service.
(iv) Beginning July 5, 2019, an ICF-IID must be in compliance with Chapter 18.104.22.168.7.1, sprinklers in attics, or Chapter 22.214.171.124.7.2, heat detection systems in attics of the Life Safety Code.
(v) Except as otherwise provided in this section, ICF-IIDs must meet the applicable provisions and must proceed in accordance with the Health Care Facilities Code (NFPA 99 and Tentative Interim Amendments TIA 12-2, TIA 12-3, TIA 12-4, TIA 12-5 and TIA 12-6).
(A) Chapter 7,8,12 and 13 of the adopted Health Care Facilities Code does not apply to an ICF-IID.
(B) If application of the Health Care Facilities Code required under paragraph (j)(5)(iv) of this section would result in unreasonable hardship for the ICF-IID, CMS may waive specific provisions of the Health Care Facilities Code, but only if the waiver does not adversely affect the health and safety of clients.
(k)Standard: Paint. The facility must -
(1) Use lead-free paint inside the facility; and
(2) Remove or cover interior paint or plaster containing lead so that it is not accessible to clients.
(l)Standard: Infection control.
(1) The facility must provide a sanitary environment to avoid sources and transmission of infections. There must be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infection and communicable diseases.
(2) The facility must implement successful corrective action in affected problem areas.
(3) The facility must maintain a record of incidents and corrective actions related to infections.
(m) The standards incorporated by reference in this section are approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 1 CFR part 51. You may inspect a copy at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. If any changes in this edition of the Code are incorporated by reference, CMS will publish a document in the Federal Register to announce the changes.
(1) National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169, www.nfpa.org, 1.617.770.3000.
(i) NFPA 99, Standards for Health Care Facilities Code of the National Fire Protection Association 99, 2012 edition, issued August 11, 2011.
(ii) TIA 12-2 to NFPA 99, issued August 11, 2011.
(iii) TIA 12-3 to NFPA 99, issued August 9, 2012.
(iv) TIA 12-4 to NFPA 99, issued March 7, 2013.
(v) TIA 12-5 to NFPA 99, issued August 1, 2013.
(vi) TIA 12-6 to NFPA 99, issued March 3, 2014.
(vii) NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2012 edition, issued August 11, 2011;
(viii) TIA 12-1 to NFPA 101, issued August 11, 2011.
(ix) TIA 12-2 to NFPA 101, issued October 30, 2012.
(x) TIA 12-3 to NFPA 101, issued October 22, 2013.
(xi) TIA 12-4 to NFPA 101, issued October 22, 2013.