§ 485.639Condition of participation: Surgical services.
If a CAH provides surgical services, surgical procedures must be performed in a safe manner by qualified practitioners who have been granted clinical privileges by the governing body, or responsible individual, of the CAH in accordance with the designation requirements under paragraph (a) of this section.
(a)Designation of qualified practitioners. The CAH designates the practitioners who are allowed to perform surgery for CAH patients, in accordance with its approved policies and procedures, and with State scope of practice laws. Surgery is performed only by—
(1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy, including an osteopathic practitioner recognized under section 1101(a)(7) of the Act;
(2) A doctor of dental surgery or dental medicine; or
(3) A doctor of podiatric medicine.
(b)Anesthetic risk and evaluation.
(1) A qualified practitioner, as specified in paragraph (a) of this section, must examine the patient immediately before surgery to evaluate the risk of the procedure to be performed.
(2) A qualified practitioner, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, must examine each patient before surgery to evaluate the risk of anesthesia.
(3) Before discharge from the CAH, each patient must be evaluated for proper anesthesia recovery by a qualified practitioner, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
(c)Administration of anesthesia. The CAH designates the person who is allowed to administer anesthesia to CAH patients in accordance with its approved policies and procedures and with State scope-of-practice laws.
(1) Anesthesia must be administered by only—
(i) A qualified anesthesiologist;
(ii) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy other than an anesthesiologist; including an osteopathic practitioner recognized under section 1101(a)(7) of the Act;
(iii) A doctor of dental surgery or dental medicine;
(iv) A doctor of podiatric medicine;
(v) A certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA), as defined in § 410.69(b) of this chapter;
(vi) An anesthesiologist's assistant, as defined in § 410.69(b) of this chapter; or
(vii) A supervised trainee in an approved educational program, as described in §§ 413.85 or 413.86 of this chapter.
(2) In those cases in which a CRNA administers the anesthesia, the anesthetist must be under the supervision of the operating practitioner except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section. An anesthesiologist's assistant who administers anesthesia must be under the supervision of an anesthesiologist.
(d)Discharge. All patients are discharged in the company of a responsible adult, except those exempted by the practitioner who performed the surgical procedure.
(e)Standard: State exemption.
(1) A CAH may be exempted from the requirement for physician supervision of CRNAs as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, if the State in which the CAH is located submits a letter to CMS signed by the Governor, following consultation with the State's Boards of Medicine and Nursing, requesting exemption from physician supervision for CRNAs. The letter from the Governor must attest that he or she has consulted with the State Boards of Medicine and Nursing about issues related to access to and the quality of anesthesia services in the State and has concluded that it is in the best interests of the State's citizens to opt-out of the current physician supervision requirement, and that the opt-out is consistent with State law.
(2) The request for exemption and recognition of State laws and the withdrawal of the request may be submitted at any time, and are effective upon submission.