44 CFR 9.11 - Mitigation.
(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to expand upon the directives set out in § 9.6 of this part, and to set out the mitigative actions required if the preliminary determination is made to carry out an action that affects or is in a floodplain or wetland.
(b) General provisions. (1) The Agency shall design or modify its actions so as to minimize harm to or within the floodplain;
(2) The Agency shall minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands;
(3) The Agency shall restore and preserve natural and beneficial floodplain values; and
(4) The Agency shall preserve and enhance natural and beneficial wetland values.
(c) Minimization provisions. The Agency shall minimize:
(1) Potential harm to lives and the investment at risk from the base flood, or, in the case of critical actions, from the 500-year flood;
(2) Potential adverse impacts the action may have on others; and
(3) Potential adverse impact the action may have on floodplain and wetland values.
(d) Minimization Standards. In its implementation of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, the Agency shall apply at a minimum, the following standards to its actions to comply with the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c), of this section, (except as provided in § 9.5 (c), (d), and (g) regarding categories of partial or total exclusion). Any Agency action to which the following specific requirements do not apply, shall nevertheless be subject to the full 8-step process (§ 9.6) including the general requirement to minimize harm to and within floodplains:
(1) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement in a floodway, and no new construction in a coastal high hazard area, except for:
(i) A functionally dependent use; or
(ii) A structure or facility which facilitates an open space use.
(2) For a structure which is a functionally dependent use, or which facilitates an open space use, the following applies. There shall be no construction of a new or substantially improved structure in a coastal high hazard area unless it is elevated on adequately anchored pilings or columns, and securely anchored to such piles or columns so that the lowest portion of the structural members of the lowest floor (excluding the pilings or columns) is elevated to or above the base flood level (the 500-year flood level for critical actions) (including wave height). The structure shall be anchored so as to withstand velocity waters and hurricane wave wash. The Regional Administrator shall be responsible for determining the base flood level, including the wave height, in all cases. Where there is a FIRM in effect, it shall be the basis of the Regional Administrator's determination. If the FIRM does not reflect wave heights, or if there is no FIRM in effect, the Regional Administrator is responsible for delineating the base flood level, including wave heights.
(3) Elevation of structures. (i) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement of structures unless the lowest floor of the structures (including basement) is at or above the level of the base flood.
(ii) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement of structures involving a critical action unless the lowest floor of the structure (including the basement) is at or above the level of the 500-year flood.
(iii) If the subject structure is nonresidential, FEMA may, instead of elevating the structure to the 100-year or 500-year level, as appropriate, approve the design of the structure and its attendant utility and sanitary facilities so that below the flood level the structure is water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy.
(iv) The provisions of paragraphs (d)(3)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section do not apply to the extent that the Federal Insurance Administration has granted an exception under 44 CFR § 60.6(b) (formerly 24 CFR 1910.6(b)), or the community has granted a variance which the Regional Administrator determines is consistent with 44 CFR 60.6(a) (formerly 24 CFR 1910.6(a)). In a community which does not have a FIRM in effect, FEMA may approve a variance from the standards of paragraphs (d)(3)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section, after compliance with the standards of 44 CFR 60.6(a).
(4) There shall be no encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements of structures or facilities, or other development within a designated regulatory floodway that would result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge. Until a regulatory floodway is designated, no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development (including fill) shall be permitted within the base floodplain unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community.
(5) Even if an action is a functionally dependent use or facilitates open space uses (under paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section) and does not increase flood heights (under paragraph (d)(4) of this section), such action may only be taken in a floodway or coastal high hazard area if:
(i) Such site is the only practicable alternative; and
(ii) Harm to and within the floodplain is minimized.
(6) In addition to standards (d)(1) through (d)(5) of this section, no action may be taken if it is inconsistent with the criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program (44 CFR part 59 et seq.) or any more restrictive Federal, State or local floodplain management standards.
(7) New construction and substantial improvement of structures shall be elevated on open works (walls, columns, piers, piles, etc.) rather than on fill, in all cases in coastal high hazard areas and elsewhere, where practicable.
(8) To minimize the effect of floods on human health, safety and welfare, the Agency shall:
(i) Where appropriate, integrate all of its proposed actions in floodplains into existing flood warning and preparedness plans and ensure that available flood warning time is reflected;
(ii) Facilitate adequate access and egress to and from the site of the proposed action; and
(iii) Give special consideration to the unique hazard potential in flash flood, rapid-rise or tsunami areas.
(9) In the replacement of building contents, materials and equipment, the Regional Administrator shall require as appropriate, disaster proofing of the building and/or elimination of such future losses by relocation of those building contents, materials and equipment outside or above the base floodplain or the 500-year floodplain for critical actions.
(e) In the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program. (1) The Federal Insurance Administration shall make identification of all coastal high hazard areas a priority;
(2) Beginning October 1, 1981, the Federal Insurance Administration of FEMA may only provide flood insurance for new construction or substantial improvements in a coastal high hazard area if:
(i) Wave heights have been designated for the site of the structure either by the Administrator of FEMA based upon data generated by FEMA or by another source, satisfactory to the Administrator; and
(ii) The structure is rated by FEMA-FIA based on a system which reflects the capacity to withstand the effects of the 100-year frequency flood including, but not limited to, the following factors:
(A) Wave heights;
(B) The ability of the structure to withstand the force of waves.
(i) FEMA shall accept and take fully into account information submitted by a property owner indicating that the rate for a particular structure is too high based on the ability of the structure to withstand the force of waves. In order to obtain a rate adjustment, a property owner must submit to FEMA specific information regarding the structure and its immediate environment. Such information must be certified by a registered professional architect or engineer who has demonstrable experience and competence in the fields of foundation, soils, and structural engineering. Such information should include:
(A) Elevation of the structure (bottom of lowest floor beam) in relation to the Base Flood Elevation including wave height;
(B) Distance of the structure from the shoreline;
(C) Dune protection and other environmental factors;
(D) Description of the building support system; and
(E) Other relevant building details.
(ii) FIA shall notify communities with coastal high hazard areas and federally related lenders in such communities, of the provisions of this paragraph. Notice to the lenders may be accomplished by the Federal instrumentalities to which the lenders are related.
(4) In any case in which the Regional Director has been, pursuant to § 9.11(d)(1), precluded from providing assistance for a new or substantially improved structure in a floodway, FIA may not provide a new or renewed policy of flood insurance for that structure.
(f) Restore and preserve. (1) For any action taken by the Agency which affects the floodplain or wetland and which has resulted in, or will result in, harm to the floodplain or wetland, the Agency shall act to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains and wetlands.
(2) Where floodplain or wetland values have been degraded by the proposed action, the Agency shall identify, evaluate and implement measures to restore the values.
(3) If an action will result in harm to or within the floodplain or wetland, the Agency shall design or modify the action to preserve as much of the natural and beneficial floodplain and wetland values as is possible.