45 CFR 1629.3 - Criteria for determining handling.
(a) The term “handles” shall be deemed to encompass any relationship of a director, officer, employee or agent with respect to funds or other property which can give rise to a risk of loss through fraud or dishonesty. This shall include relationships such as those which involve access to funds or other property or decision-making powers with respect to funds or property which can give rise to such risk of loss.
(b) Subject to the application of the basic standard of risk of loss to each situation, the criteria for determining whether there is “handling” so as to require bonding are:
(1) Physical contact with cash, checks or similar property;
(2) The power to secure physical possession of cash, checks or similar property such as through access to a safe deposit box or similar depository, access to cash or negotiable instruments and assets, power of custody or safe-keeping, or the power to borrow or withdraw funds from a bank or other account whether or not physical contact actually takes place;
(3) The power to transfer or cause to be transferred property such as mortgages, title to land and buildings, or securities, through actual or apparent authority, to oneself or to a third party, or to be negotiated for value.
(c) Persons who actually disburse funds or other property, such as officers authorized to sign checks or other negotiable instruments, or persons who make cash disbursements, shall be considered to be “handling” such funds or property.
(d) In connection with disbursements, any persons with the power to sign or endorse checks or similar instruments or otherwise render them transferable, whether individually or as cosigners with one or more persons, shall each be considered to be “handling” such funds or other property.
(e) To the extent a person's supervisory or decision-making responsibility involves factors in relationship to funds discussed in paragraphs (b) (1), (2), (3), or paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, such persons shall be considered to be “handling” in the same manner as any person to whom the criteria of those subparagraphs apply.