45 CFR § 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?
A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is false) if the person:
(a) Has actual knowledge that the claim or statement is false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or
(b) Acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the claim or statement; or
(c) Acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the claim or statement.