45 CFR 30.10 - Collection activities.
(a) General rule. The Secretary shall aggressively and timely collect all debts arising out of activities of, or referred or transferred for collection actions to, the Department. Normally, an initial written demand for payment shall be made no later than 30 days after a determination by an appropriate official that a debt exists.
(b) Cooperation with other agencies. The Department shall cooperate with other agencies in their debt collection activities.
(c) Transfer of delinquent debts - (1) Mandatory transfer. The Department shall transfer legally enforceable debts 180 days or more delinquent to Treasury in accordance with the requirements of 31 CFR 285.12. This requirement does not apply to any debt that:
(i) Is in litigation or foreclosure;
(ii) Will be disposed of under an approved asset sale program within one year of becoming eligible for sale;
(iii) Has been referred to a private collection contractor for a period of time acceptable to the Secretary of the Treasury;
(iv) Is at a debt collection center for a period of time acceptable to the Secretary of the Treasury (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section);
(v) Will be collected under internal offset procedures within three years after the debt first became delinquent; or
(vi) Is exempt from this requirement based on a determination by the Secretary of the Treasury that exemption for a certain class of debt is in the best interest of the United States.
(2) Permissive transfer. The Secretary may refer debts less than 180 days delinquent, including debts referred to the Department by another agency, to the Treasury in accordance with the requirements of 31 CFR 285.12, or with the consent of the Treasury, to a Treasury-designated debt collection center to accomplish efficient, cost effective debt collection. Referrals to debt collection centers shall be at the discretion of, and for a time period acceptable to, the Secretary of the Treasury. Referrals may be for servicing, collection, compromise, suspension, or termination of collection action.