45 CFR § 31.3 - General rule.
(b) FMS will compare tax refund payment records, as certified by the IRS, with records of debts submitted by the Department under this part. A match will occur when the taxpayer identification number and name of a payment certification record are the same as the taxpayer identifying number and name control of a debtor record. When a match occurs and all other requirements for tax refund offset have been met, FMS will reduce the amount of any tax refund payment payable to a debtor by the amount of any past-due legally enforceable debt. Any amounts not offset will be paid to the payee(s) listed in the payment certification record.