46 CFR 160.077-11 - Materials
(a) General -
(1) Application. This section contains requirements for materials used in recreational hybrid PFD's.
(2) Condition of Materials. All materials must be new.
(3) Acceptance, certification, and quality. All components used in the construction of hybrid PFDs must meet the applicable requirements of subpart 164.019 of this chapter.
(4) Temperature range. Unless otherwise specified in standards incorporated by reference in this section, all materials must be designed for use in all weather conditions throughout a temperature range of −30 °C to 65 °C (−22 °F to 150 °F).
(5) Weathering Resistance. Each non-metallic component which is not suitably covered to shield against ultraviolet exposure must be designed to -
(i) Retain at least 40% of its strength after being subjected to 300 hours of sunshine carbon arc weathering as specified by Method 5804.1 of Federal Test Method Standard Number 191; or
(ii) Meet UL 1517, section 4.3.
(6) Fungus Resistance. Each non-metallic component must be designed to retain at least 90% of its strength after being subjected to the mildew resistance test specified by Method 5762 of Federal Test Method Standard 191 when untreated cotton is used as the control specimen. Also, the gas transmission rate of inflation chamber materials must not be increased by more than 10% after being subjected to this test. Materials that are covered when used in the PFD may be tested with that covering.
(7) Corrosion resistance. Each metal component must be -
(i) Galvanically compatible with each other metal part in contact with it; and
(ii) Unless it is expendable (such as an inflation medium cartridge), 410 stainless steel or have salt water and salt air corrosion characteristics equal or superior to 410 stainless steel or perform its intended function, and have no visible pitting or other damage on any surface, after 720 hours of salt spray testing according to ASTM B 117 (incorporated by reference, see § 160.077-5).
(8) Materials not covered. Materials not covered in this section must be of good quality and suitable for the purpose intended.
(b) Flotation material. Inherent buoyancy must be provided by -
(1) Plastic foam meeting -
(i) Subpart 164.013 of this chapter;
(ii) Subpart 164.015 of this chapter; or
(iii) UL 1191 and having a V factor of 89 except that foam with a lower V factor may be used if it provides buoyancy which, after a normal service life, is at least equal to that of a PFD made with material having a V factor of 89 and the required minimum inherent buoyancy when new; or
(2) Kapok meeting subpart 164.003 of this chapter.
(c) Fabric -
(1) All fabric. All fabric, except inner envelope fabric, must -
(i) Be of a type accepted for use on Type I PFD's approved under subpart 160.002 of this chapter; or
(ii) Meet the Type V requirements for “Fabrics for Wearable Devices” in UL 1191, except that its breaking strength must be at least 400 N (90 lb.) in both the directions of greater and lesser thread count.
(2) Rubber coated fabric. Rubber coated fabric must be of a copper-inhibiting type.
(3) Inner envelope fabric. Inner envelope fabric must -
(i) Meet the requirements in paragraph (c)(i) of this section; or
(ii) Be of a type accepted for use on Type II PFD's approved under subpart 160.047 of this chapter.
(d) Inflation chamber materials -
(1) All materials. The average permeability of inflation chamber material must not be more than 110% of the permeability of materials determined in approval testing prescribed in § 160.077-19(d). The average grab breaking strength and tear strength of the material must be at least 90% of the grab breaking strength and tear strength determined from testing prescribed in § 160.077-19(d). No individual sample result for breaking strength or tear strength may be more than 20% below the results obtained in approval testing.
(2) Fabric covered chambers. Each material used in the construction of inflation chambers that are covered with fabric must meet the requirements specified for -
(i) Bladder materials in section 3.2.6 of MIL-L-24611(SH) if the material is an unsupported film, except that any color or finish may be used; or
(ii) Coated fabric in section 3.1.1 of TSO-C13 if the material is a coated fabric.
(3) Uncovered chambers. Each material used in the construction of inflation chambers that are not covered with fabric must meet the requirements specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) and (a)(5)(i) of this section.
(e) Thread. Each thread must meet the requirements of subpart 164.023 of this chapter. Only one kind of thread may be used in each seam. Thread and fabric combinations must have similar elongation and durability characteristics.
(f) Webbing. Webbing used as a body strap, tie tape or drawstring, or reinforcing tape must meet § 160.002-3(e), § 160.002-3(f), and § 160.002-3(h) of this chapter respectively. Webbing used for tie tape or drawstring must be capable of easily holding a knot and being easily tied and untied. Webbing used as reinforcing tape must be smooth enough to prevent chafing the wearer.
(g) Closures -
(1) Strength. Each closure such as a buckle, snap hook and dee ring, or other type of fastening must comply with UL 1517, section 4.1. The width of each closure opening through which body strap webbing passes must be the same as the width of that webbing.
(2) Means of Locking. Each closure used to secure a PFD to the body, except a zipper, must have a quick and positive means of locking, such as a snap hook and dee ring.
(3) Zipper. If a zipper is used to secure a PFD to the wearer it must be -
(i) Easily initiated;
(iii) Right handed; and
(iv) Of a locking type.
(h) Inflation medium. If a hybrid PFD has an automatic or manual inflation mechanism -
(1) The inflation medium must not contain or produce compounds more toxic than CO2 in sufficient quantity to cause an adverse reaction if inhaled through any of its oral inflation mechanisms; and
(2) Any chemical reaction during inflation must not leave a toxic residue.
(j) Kapok pad covering. If kapok flotation material is used, pad covering that meets § 160.047-3(e) of this chapter must be provided to enclose the material in at least three separate pads.