46 CFR § 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).
(a) All pressure vessels must be provided with protective devices. The protective devices must be in accordance with the requirements of UG-125 through UG-136 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) except as modified in this subpart.
(c) All pressure vessels other than unfired steam boilers shall be protected by pressure-relieving devices that will prevent the pressure from rising more than 10 percent above the maximum allowable working pressure, except when the excess pressure is caused by exposure to fire or other unexpected source of heat.
(d) Where an additional hazard can be created by exposure of a pressure vessel to fire or other unexpected sources of external heat (for example, vessels used to store liquefied flammable gases), supplemental pressure-relieving devices shall be installed to protect against excessive pressure. Such supplemental pressure-relieving devices shall be capable of preventing the pressure from rising more than 20 percent above the maximum allowable working pressure of the vessel. The minimum required relief capacities for compressed gas pressure vessels are given under § 54.15-25. A single pressure-relieving device may be used to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph and paragraph (c) of this section, provided it meets the requirements of both paragraphs.
(e) Pressure-relieving devices should be selected on the basis of their intended service. They shall be constructed, located, and installed so that they are readily accessible for inspection and repair and so arranged that they cannot be readily rendered inoperative.
(f) Where pressure-indicating gages are used, they shall be chosen to be compatible with the pressure to be indicated. The size of the visual display, the fineness of graduations, and the orientation of the display will be considered. In no case shall the upper range of the gage be less than 1.2 times nor more than 2 times the pressure at which the relieving device is set to function.
(h) Vessels that are to operate completely filled with liquid shall be equipped with liquid relief valves unless otherwise protected against overpressure.
(i) The protective devices required under paragraph (a) of this section shall be installed directly on a pressure vessel except when the source of pressure is external to the vessel, and is under such positive control that the pressure in the vessel cannot exceed the maximum allowable working pressure at the operating temperature except as permitted in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.
(j) Pressure-relieving devices shall be constructed of materials suitable for the pressure, temperature, and other conditions of the service intended.
(k) The opening through all pipes and fittings between a pressure vessel and its pressure-relieving device shall have at least the area of the pressure-relieving device inlet, and in all cases shall have sufficient area so as not to unduly restrict the flow to the pressure-relieving device. The opening in the vessel shall be designed to provide direct and unobstructed flow between the vessel and its pressure-relieving device.
(l) Safety devices need not be provided by the pressure vessel manufacturer. However, overpressure protection shall be provided prior to placing the vessel in service.