47 CFR 22.99 - Definitions.
Terms used in this part have the following meanings:
Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service. A radio service in which licensees are authorized to offer and provide radio telecommunications service for hire to subscribers in aircraft.
Airborne station. A mobile station in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service authorized for use on aircraft while in flight or on the ground.
Antenna structure. A structure comprising an antenna, the tower or other structure that exists solely to support antennas, and any surmounting appurtenances (attachments such as beacons or lightning rods).
Antenna. A device that converts radio frequency electrical energy to radiated electromagnetic energy and vice versa; in a transmitting station, the device from which radio waves are emitted.
Authorized bandwidth. The necessary or occupied bandwidth of an emission, whichever is more.
Authorized spectrum. The spectral width of that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum within which the emission power of the authorized transmitter(s) must be contained, in accordance with the rules in this part. The authorized spectrum comprises one channel bandwidth or the bandwidths of two or more contiguous channels.
Auxiliary test transmitter. A fixed transmitter used to test Public Mobile systems.
Base transmitter. A stationary transmitter that provides radio telecommunications service to mobile and/or fixed receivers, including those associated with mobile stations.
Blanketing interference. Disturbance in consumer receivers located in the immediate vicinity of a transmitter, caused by currents directly induced into the consumer receiver's circuitry by the relatively high field strength of the transmitter.
Cardinal radials. Eight imaginary straight lines extending radially on the ground from an antenna location in the following azimuths with respect to true North: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315°.
Carrier frequency. The frequency of the unmodulated electrical wave at the output of an amplitude modulated (AM), frequency modulated (FM) or phase modulated (PM) transmitter.
Cell. The service area of an individual transmitter location in a cellular system.
Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA). The licensed geographic area within which a Cellular system is entitled to protection and adverse effects are recognized, for the purpose of determining whether a petitioner has standing, in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service, and within which the Cellular licensee is permitted to transmit, or consent to allow other Cellular licensees to transmit, electromagnetic energy and signals on the assigned channel block, in order to provide Cellular service. See § 22.911.
Cellular Market Area (CMA). A standard geographic area used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of Cellular systems; a more recent term for “Cellular market” (and includes Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Service Areas (RSAs)). See § 22.909.
Cellular markets. This term is obsolescent. See definition for “Cellular Market Area (CMA).”
Cellular Radiotelephone Service. A radio service in which licensees are authorized to offer and provide cellular service for hire to the general public. This service was formerly titled Domestic Public Cellular Radio Telecommunications Service.
Cellular repeater. In the Cellular Radiotelephone Service, a stationary transmitter or device that automatically re-radiates the transmissions of base transmitters at a particular cell site and mobile stations communicating with those base transmitters, with or without channel translation.
Cellular service. Radio telecommunication services provided using a cellular system.
Cellular system. An automated high-capacity system of one or more multichannel base stations designed to provide radio telecommunication services to mobile stations over a wide area in a spectrally efficient manner. Cellular systems employ techniques such as low transmitting power and automatic hand-off between base stations of communications in progress to enable channels to be reused at relatively short distances. Cellular systems may also employ digital techniques such as voice encoding and decoding, data compression, error correction, and time or code division multiple access in order to increase system capacity.
Center frequency. The frequency of the middle of the bandwidth of a channel.
Central office transmitter. A fixed transmitter in the Rural Radiotelephone Service that provides service to rural subscriber stations.
CGSA. See Cellular Geographic Service Area.
Channel. The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum assigned by the FCC for one emission. In certain circumstances, however, more than one emission may be transmitted on a channel.
Channel bandwidth. The spectral width of a channel, as specified in this part, within which 99% of the emission power must be contained.
Channel block. A group of channels that are assigned together, not individually.
Channel pair. Two channels that are assigned together, not individually. In this part, channel pairs are indicated by an ellipsis between the center frequencies.
Communications channel. In the Cellular Radiotelephone and Air-Ground Radiotelephone Services, a channel used to carry subscriber communications.
Construction period. The period between the date of grant of an authorization and the date of required commencement of service.
Control channel. In the Cellular Radiotelephone Service and the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service, a channel used to transmit information necessary to establish or maintain communications. In the other Public Mobile Services, a channel that may be assigned to a control transmitter.
Control point. A location where the operation of a public mobile station is supervised and controlled by the licensee of that station.
Control transmitter. A fixed transmitter in the Public Mobile Services that transmits control signals to one or more base or fixed stations for the purpose of controlling the operation of the base or fixed stations, and/or transmits subscriber communications to one or more base or fixed stations that retransmit them to subscribers.
Dead spots. Small areas within a service area where the field strength is lower than the minimum level for reliable service. Service within dead spots is presumed.
Dispatch service. A radiotelephone service comprising communications between a dispatcher and one or more mobile units. These communications normally do not exceed one minute in duration and are transmitted directly through a base station, without passing through mobile telephone switching facilities.
Effective radiated power (ERP). The effective radiated power of a transmitter (with antenna, transmission line, duplexers etc.) is the power that would be necessary at the input terminals of a reference half-wave dipole antenna in order to produce the same maximum field intensity. ERP is usually calculated by multiplying the measured transmitter output power by the specified antenna system gain, relative to a half-wave dipole, in the direction of interest.
Emission. The electromagnetic energy radiated from an antenna.
Emission designator. An internationally accepted symbol for describing an emission in terms of its bandwidth and the characteristics of its modulation, if any. See § 2.201 of this chapter for details.
Emission mask. The design limits imposed, as a condition or certification, on the mean power of emissions as a function of frequency both within the authorized bandwidth and in the adjacent spectrum.
Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). The equivalent isotropically radiated power of a transmitter (with antenna, transmission line, duplexers etc.) is the power that would be necessary at the input terminals of a reference isotropic radiator in order to produce the same maximum field intensity. An isotropic radiator is a theoretical lossless point source of radiation with unity gain in all directions. EIRP is usually calculated by multiplying the measured transmitter output power by the specified antenna system gain, relative to an isotropic radiator, in the direction of interest.
Extension. In the Cellular Radiotelephone Service, an area within the service area boundary (calculated using the methodology of § 22.911) of a Cellular system but outside the licensed Cellular Geographic Service Area boundary. See §§ 22.911 and 22.912.
Facsimile service. Transmission of still images from one place to another by means of radio.
Fill-in transmitters. Transmitters added to a station, in the same area and transmitting on the same channel or channel block as previously authorized transmitters, that do not expand the existing service area, but are established for the purpose of improving reception in dead spots.
Fixed transmitter. A stationary transmitter that communicates with other stationary transmitters.
Frequency. The number of cycles occurring per second of an electrical or electromagnetic wave; a number representing a specific point in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Ground station. In the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service, a stationary transmitter that provides service to airborne mobile stations.
Gulf of Mexico Service Area (GMSA). The cellular market comprising the water area of the Gulf of Mexico bounded on the West, North and East by the coastline. Coastline, for this purpose, means the line of ordinary low water along that portion of the coast which is in direct contact with the open sea, and the line marking the seaward limit of inland waters. Inland waters include bays, historic inland waters and waters circumscribed by a fringe of islands within the immediate vicinity of the shoreline.
Height above average terrain (HAAT). The height of an antenna above the average elevation of the surrounding area.
In-building radiation systems. Supplementary systems comprising low power transmitters, receivers, indoor antennas and/or leaky coaxial cable radiators, designed to improve service reliability inside buildings or structures located within the service areas of stations in the Public Mobile Services.
Initial cellular applications. Applications for authority to construct and operate a new cellular system, excluding applications for interim operating authority.
Interfering contour. The locus of points surrounding a transmitter where the predicted median field strength of the signal from that transmitter is the maximum field strength that is not considered to cause interference at the service contour of another transmitter.
Interoffice transmitter. A fixed transmitter in the Rural Radiotelephone Service that communicates with other interoffice transmitters for the purpose of interconnecting rural central offices.
Mobile station. One or more transmitters that are capable of operation while in motion.
Necessary bandwidth. The calculated spectral width of an emission. Calculations are made using procedures set forth in part 2 of this chapter. The bandwidth so calculated is considered to be the minimum necessary to convey information at the desired rate with the desired accuracy.
Occupied bandwidth. The measured spectral width of an emission. The measurement determines occupied bandwidth as the difference between upper and lower frequencies where 0.5% of the emission power is above the upper frequency and 0.5% of the emission power is below the lower frequency.
Offshore central transmitter. A fixed transmitter in the Offshore Radiotelephone Service that provides service to offshore subscriber stations.
Offshore Radiotelephone Service. A radio service in which licensees are authorized to offer and provide radio telecommunication services for hire to subscribers on structures in the offshore coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
Offshore subscriber station. One or more fixed and/or mobile transmitters in the Offshore Radiotelephone Service that receive service from offshore central transmitters.
Pager. A small radio receiver designed to be carried by a person and to give an aural, visual or tactile indication when activated by the reception of a radio signal containing its specific code. It may also reproduce sounds and/or display messages that were also transmitted. Some pagers also transmit a radio signal acknowledging that a message has been received.
Paging geographic area authorization. An authorization conveying the exclusive right to establish and expand one or more stations throughout a paging geographic area or, in the case of a partitioned geographic area, throughout a specified portion of a paging geographic area, on a specified channel allocated for assignment in the Paging and Radiotelephone Service. These are subject to the conditions that no interference may be caused to existing co-channel stations operated by other licensees within the paging geographic area and that no interference may be caused to existing or proposed co-channel stations of other licensees in adjoining paging geographic areas.
Paging geographic areas. Standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of stations to operate on channels allocated for assignment in the Paging and Radiotelephone Service. See § 22.503(b).
Paging and Radiotelephone Service. A radio service in which common carriers are authorized to offer and provide paging and radiotelephone service for hire to the general public. This service was formerly titled Public Land Mobile Service.
Paging service. Transmission of coded radio signals for the purpose of activating specific pagers; such transmissions may include messages and/or sounds.
Public Mobile Services. Radio services in which licensees are authorized to offer and provide mobile and related fixed radio telecommunication services for hire to the public.
Radio telecommunication services. Communication services provided by the use of radio, including radiotelephone, radiotelegraph, paging and facsimile service.
Radiotelegraph service. Transmission of messages from one place to another by means of radio.
Radiotelephone service. Transmission of sound from one place to another by means of radio.
Repeater. A fixed transmitter that retransmits the signals of other stations.
Roamer. A mobile station receiving service from a station or system in the Public Mobile Services other than one to which it is a subscriber.
Rural Radiotelephone Service. A radio service in which licensees are authorized to offer and provide radio telecommunication services for hire to subscribers in areas where it is not feasible to provide communication services by wire or other means.
Rural subscriber station. One or more fixed transmitters in the Rural Radiotelephone Service that receive service from central office transmitters.
Service area. The geographic area considered by the FCC to be reliably served by a station in the Public Mobile Services.
Service contour. The locus of points surrounding a transmitter where the predicted median field strength of the signal from that transmitter is the minimum field strength that is considered sufficient to provide reliable service to mobile stations.
Service to subscribers. Service to at least one subscriber that is not affiliated with, controlled by or related to the providing carrier.
Signal booster. A stationary device that automatically reradiates signals from base transmitters without channel translation, for the purpose of improving the reliability of existing service by increasing the signal strength in dead spots.
Station. A station equipped to engage in radio communication or radio transmission of energy (47 U.S.C. 153(k)).
Telecommunications common carrier. An individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust or corporation engaged in rendering radio telecommunications services to the general public for hire.
Temporary fixed station. One or more fixed transmitters that normally do not remain at any particular location for longer than 6 months.
Universal licensing system. The Universal Licensing System (ULS) is the consolidated database, application filing system, and processing system for all Wireless Radio Services. ULS supports electronic filing of all applications and related documents by applicants and licensees in the Wireless Radio Services, and provides public access to licensing information.
Unserved Area. With regard to a channel block allocated for assignment in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service: Geographic area in the District of Columbia, or any State, Territory or Possession of the United States of America that is not within any Cellular Geographic Service Area of any Cellular system authorized to transmit on that channel block. With regard to a channel allocated for assignment in the Paging and Radiotelephone service: Geographic area within the District of Columbia, or any State, Territory or possession of the United States of America that is not within the service contour of any base transmitter in any station authorized to transmit on that channel.