Groundwave field strength graphs.
Graphs 1 to 20 show, for each of 20 frequencies, the computed values of groundwave field strength as a function of groundwave conductivity and distance from the source of radiation. The groundwave field strength is considered to be that part of the vertical component of the electric field which has not been reflected from the ionosphere nor from the troposphere. These 20 families of curves are plotted on log-log graph paper and each is to be used for the range of frequencies shown thereon. Computations are based on a dielectric constant of the ground (referred to air as unity) equal to 15 for land and 80 for sea water and for the ground conductivities (expressed in mS/m) given on the curves. The curves show the variation of the groundwave field strength with distance to be expected for transmission from a vertical antenna at the surface of a uniformly conducting spherical earth with the groundwave constants shown on the curves. The curves are for an antenna power of such efficiency and current distribution that the inverse distance (unattenuated) field is 100 mV/m at 1 kilometer. The curves are valid for distances that are large compared to the dimensions of the antenna for other than short vertical antennas.
The inverse distance field (100 mV/m divided by the distance in kilometers) corresponds to the groundwave field intensity to be expected from an antenna with the same radiation efficiency when it is located over a perfectly conducting earth. To determine the value of the groundwave field intensity corresponding to a value of inverse distance field other than 100 mV/m at 1 kilometer, multiply the field strength as given on these graphs by the desired value of inverse distance field at 1 kilometer divided by 100; for example, to determine the groundwave field strength for a station with an inverse distance field of 2700 mV/m at 1 kilometer, simply multiply the values given on the charts by 27. The value of the inverse distance field to be used for a particular antenna depends upon the power input to the antenna, the nature of the ground in the neighborhood of the antenna, and the geometry of the antenna. For methods of calculating the interrelations between these variables and the inverse distance field, see “The Propagation of Radio Waves Over the Surface of the Earth and in the Upper Atmosphere,” Part II, by Mr. K.A. Norton, Proc. I.R.E., Vol. 25, September 1937, pp. 1203-1237.
The computed values of field strength versus distance used to plot Graphs 1 to 20 are available in tabular form. For information on obtaining copies of these tabulations call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, (202) 632-7000.
Provided the value of the dielectric constant is near 15, the ground conductivity curves of Graphs 1 to 20 may be compared with actual field strength measurement data to determine the appropriate values of the ground conductivity and the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. This is accomplished by plotting the measured field strengths on transparent log-log graph paper similar to that used for Graphs 1 to 20 and superimposing the plotted graph over the Graph corresponding to the frequency of the station measured. The plotted graph is then shifted vertically until the plotted measurement data is best aligned with one of the conductivity curves on the Graph; the intersection of the inverse distance line on the Graph with the 1 kilometer abscissa on the plotted graph determines the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. For other values of dielectric constant, the following procedure may be used to determine the dielectric constant of the ground, the ground conductivity and the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer. Graph 21 gives the relative values of groundwave field strength over a plane earth as a function of the numerical distance p and phase angle b. On graph paper with coordinates similar to those of Graph 21, plot the measured values of field strength as ordinates versus the corresponding distances from the antenna in kilometers as abscissae. The data should be plotted only for distances greater than one wavelength (or, when this is greater, five times the vertical height of the antenna in the case of a nondirectional antenna or 10 times the spacing between the elements of a directional antenna) and for distances less than 80f1/3 MHz kilometers (i.e., 80 kilometers at 1 MHz). Then, using a light box, place the plotted graph over Graph 21 and shift the plotted graph vertically and horizontally (making sure that the vertical lines on both sheets are parallel) until the best fit with the data is obtained with one of the curves on Graph 21. When the two sheets are properly lined up, the value of the field strength corresponding to the intersection of the inverse distance line of Graph 21 with the 1 kilometer abscissa on the data sheet is the inverse distance field strength at 1 kilometer, and the values of the numerical distance at 1 kilometer, p
1, and of b are also determined. Knowing the values of b and p
1 (the numerical distance at one kilometer), we may substitute in the following approximate values of the ground conductivity and dielectric constant.
(R/λ)1= Number of wavelengths in 1 kilometer,
fMHz=frequency expressed in megahertz,
ε = dielectric constant on the ground referred to air as unity.
First solve for χ by substituting the known values of p
1, (R/λ)1, and cos b in equation (1). Equation (2) may then be solved for δ and equation (3) for ε. At distances greater than 80/f1/3 MHz kilometers the curves of Graph 21 do not give the correct relative values of field strength since the curvature of the earth weakens the field more rapidly than these plane earth curves would indicate. Thus, no attempt should be made to fit experimental data to these curves at the larger distances.
For other values of dielectric constant, use can be made of the computer program which was employed by the FCC in generating the curves in Graphs 1 to 20. For information on obtaining a printout of this program, call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 200554, (202) 632-7000.
At sufficiently short distances (less than 55 kilometers at AM broadcast frequencies), such that the curvature of the earth does not introduce an additional attenuation of the waves, the curves of Graph 21 may be used to determine the groundwave field strength of transmitting and receiving antennas at the surface of the earth for any radiated power, frequency, or set of ground constants. First, trace the straight inverse distance line corresponding to the power radiated on transparent log-log graph paper similar to that of Graph 21, labelling the ordinates of the chart in terms of field strength, and the abscissae in terms of distance. Next, using the formulas given on Graph 21, calculate the value of the numerical distance, p, at 1 kilometer, and the value of b. Then superimpose the log-log graph paper over Graph 21, shifting it vertically until both inverse distance lines coincide and shifting it horizontally until the numerical distance at 1 kilometer on Graph 21 coincides with 1 kilometer on the log-log graph paper. The curve of Graph 21 corresponding to the calculated value of b is then traced on the log-log graph paper giving the field strength versus distance in kilometers.
This paragraph consists of the following Graphs 1 to 20 and 21.
The referenced graphs are not published in the CFR, nor will they be included in the Commission's automated rules system. For information on obtaining copies of the graphs call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC 20554, Telephone: (202) 632-7000.
[28 FR 13574, Dec. 14, 1963, as amended at 50 FR 18823, May 2, 1985; 51 FR 45891, Dec. 23, 1986; 52 FR 36878, Oct. 1, 1987; 56 FR 64866, Dec. 12, 1991; 57 FR 43290, Sept. 18, 1992]