47 CFR § 73.687 - Transmission system requirements.
(a) Visual transmitter.
(1) The field strength or voltage of the lower sideband, as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall not be greater than −20 dB for a modulating frequency of 1.25 MHz or greater and in addition, for color, shall not be greater than −42 dB for a modulating frequency of 3.579545 MHz (the color subcarrier frequency). For both monochrome and color, the field strength or voltage of the upper sideband as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall not be greater than −20 dB for a modulating frequency of 4.75 MHz or greater. For stations operating on Channels 15-69 and employing a transmitter delivering maximum peak visual power output of 1 kW or less, the field strength or voltage of the upper and lower sidebands, as radiated or dissipated and measured as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, shall depart from the visual amplitude characteristic (Figure 5a of § 73.699) by no more than the following amounts:
(2) The attenuation characteristics of a visual transmitter shall be measured by application of a modulating signal to the transmitter input terminals in place of the normal composite television video signal. The signal applied shall be a composite signal composed of a synchronizing signal to establish peak output voltage plus a variable frequency sine wave voltage occupying the interval between synchronizing pulses. (The “synchronizing signal” referred to in this section means either a standard synchronizing wave form or any pulse that will properly set the peak.) The axis of the sine wave in the composite signal observed in the output monitor shall be maintained at an amplitude 0.5 of the voltage at synchronizing peaks. The amplitude of the sine wave input shall be held at a constant value. This constant value should be such that at no modulating frequency does the maximum excursion of the sine wave, observed in the composite output signal monitor, exceed the value 0.75 of peak output voltage. The amplitude of the 200 kHz sideband shall be measured and designated zero dB as a basis for comparison. The modulation signal frequency shall then be varied over the desired range and the field strength or signal voltage of the corresponding sidebands measured. As an alternate method of measuring, in those cases in which the automatic d-c insertion can be replaced by manual control, the above characteristic may be taken by the use of a video sweep generator and without the use of pedestal synchronizing pulses. The d-c level shall be set for midcharacteristic operation.
(3) A sine wave, introduced at those terminals of the transmitter which are normally fed the composite color picture signal, shall produce a radiated signal having an envelope delay, relative to the average envelope delay between 0.05 and 0.20 MHz, of zero microseconds up to a frequency of 3.0 MHz; and then linearly decreasing to 4.18 MHz so as to be equal to −0.17 µsecs at 3.58 MHz. The tolerance on the envelope delay shall be ±0.05 µsecs at 3.58 MHz. The tolerance shall increase linearly to ±0.1 µsec down to 2.1 MHz, and remain at ±0.1 µsec down to 0.2 MHz. (Tolerances for the interval of 0.0 to 0.2 MHz are not specified at the present time.) The tolerance shall also increase linearly to ±0.1 µsec at 4.18 MHz.
(4) The radio frequency signal, as radiated, shall have an envelope as would be produced by a modulating signal in conformity with § 73.682 and Figure 6 or 7 of § 73.699, as modified by vestigial sideband operation specified in Figure 5 of § 73.699. For stations operating on Channels 15-69 the radio frequency signal as radiated, shall have an envelope as would be produced by a modulating signal in conformity with § 73.682 and Figure 6 or 7 of § 73.699.
(5) The time interval between the leading edges of successive horizontal pulses shall vary less than one half of one percent of the average interval. However, for color transmissions, § 73.682(a) (5) and (6) shall be controlling.
(6) The rate of change of the frequency of recurrence of the leading edges of the horizontal synchronizing signals shall be not greater than 0.15 percent per second, the frequency to be determined by an averaging process carried out over a period of not less than 20, nor more than 100 lines, such lines not to include any portion of the blanking interval. However, for color transmissions, § 73.682(a) (5) and (6) shall be controlling.
(b) Aural transmitter.
(1) Pre-emphasis shall be employed as closely as practicable in accordance with the impedance-frequency characteristic of a series inductance-resistance network having a time constant of 75 microseconds. (See upper curve of Figure 12 § 73.699.)
(2) If a limiting or compression amplifier is employed, precaution should be maintained in its connection in the circuit due to the use of pre-emphasis in the transmitting system.
(3) Aural modulation levels are specified in § 73.1570.
(c) Requirements applicable to both visual and aural transmitters.
(1) Automatic means shall be provided in the visual transmitter to maintain the carrier frequency within ±1 kHz of the authorized frequency; automatic means shall be provided in the aural transmitter to maintain the carrier frequency 4.5 MHz above the actual visual carrier frequency within ±1 kHz.
(2) The transmitters shall be equipped with suitable indicating instruments for the determination of operating power and with other instruments necessary for proper adjustment, operation, and maintenance of the equipment.
(3) Adequate provision shall be made for varying the output power of the transmitters to compensate for excessive variations in line voltage or for other factors affecting the output power.
(4) Adequate provisions shall be provided in all component parts to avoid overheating at the rated maximum output powers.
(d) The construction, installation, and operation of broadcast equipment is expected to conform with all applicable local, state, and federally imposed safety regulations and standards, enforcement of which is the responsibility of the issuing regulatory agency.
(1) Spurious emissions, including radio frequency harmonics, shall be maintained at as low a level as the state of the art permits. As measured at the output terminals of the transmitter (including harmonic filters, if required) all emissions removed in frequency in excess of 3 MHz above or below the respective channel edge shall be attenuated no less than 60 dB. below the visual transmitted power. (The 60 dB. value for television transmitters specified in this rule should be considered as a temporary requirement which may be increased at a later date, especially when more higher-powered equipment is utilized. Stations should, therefore, give consideration to the installation of equipment with greater attenuation than 60 dB.) In the event of interference caused to any service greater attenuation will be required.
(2) If a limiting or compression amplifier is used in conjunction with the aural transmitter, due operating precautions should be maintained because of pre-emphasis in the transmitting system.
(3) TV broadcast stations operating on Channel 14 and Channel 69 must take special precautions to avoid interference to adjacent spectrum land mobile radio service facilities. Where a TV station is authorized and operating prior to the authorization and operation of the land mobile facility, a Channel 14 station must attenuate its emissions within the frequency range 467 to 470 MHz and a Channel 69 station must attentuate its emissions within the frequency range 806 to 809 MHz if necessary to permit reasonable use of the adjacent frequencies by land mobile licensees.
(4) The requirements listed below apply to permittees authorized to construct a new station on TV Channel 14 or TV Channel 69, and to licensees authorized to change the channel of an existing station to Channel 14 or to Channel 69, to increase effective radiated power (ERP) (including any change in directional antenna characteristics that results in an increase in ERP in any direction), or to change the transmitting location of an existing station.
(i) For the purposes of this paragraph, a protected land mobile facility is a receiver that is intended to receive transmissions from licensed land mobile stations within the frequency band below 470 MHz (as relates to Channel 14) or above 806 MHz (as relates to Channel 69), and is associated with one or more land mobile stations for which a license has been issued by the Commission, or a proper application has been received by the Commission prior to the date of the filing of the TV construction permit application. However, a land mobile facility will not be protected if it is proposed in an application that is denied or dismissed and that action is no longer subject to Commission review. Further, if the land mobile station is not operating when the TV facility commences operation and it does not commence operation within the time permitted by its authorization in accordance with part 90 of this chapter, it will not be protected.
(ii) A TV permittee must take steps before construction to identify potential interference to normal land mobile operation that could be caused by TV emissions outside the authorized channel, land mobile receiver desensitization or intermodulation. It must install filters and take other precautions as necessary, and submit evidence that no interference is being caused before it will be permitted to transmit programming on the new facilities pursuant to the provisions of § 73.1615 or § 73.1620 of this part. A TV permittee must reduce its emissions within the land mobile channel of a protected land mobile facility that is receiving interference caused by the TV emission producing a vertically polarized signal and a field strength in excess of 17 dBu at the land mobile receiver site on the land mobile frequency. The TV emission should be measured with equipment set to a 30 kHz measurement bandwidth including the entire applicable land mobile channel. A TV permittee must correct a desensitization problem if its occurrence can be directly linked to the start of the TV operation and the land mobile station is using facilities with typical desensitization rejection characteristics. A TV permittee must identify the source of an intermodulation product that is generated when the TV operation commences. If the intermodulation source is under its control, the TV permittee must correct the problem. If the intermodulation source is beyond the TV permittee's control, it must cooperate in the resolution of the problem and should provide whatever technical assistance it can.