48 CFR § 11.701 - Supply contracts.
(a) A fixed-price supply contract may authorize Government acceptance of a variation in the quantity of items called for if the variation is caused by conditions of loading, shipping, or packing, or by allowances in manufacturing processes. Any permissible variation shall be stated as a percentage and it may be an increase, a decrease, or a combination of both; however, contracts for subsistence items may use other applicable terms of variation in quantity.
(b) There should be no standard or usual variation percentage. The overrun or underrun permitted in each contract should be based upon the normal commercial practices of a particular industry for a particular item, and the permitted percentage should be no larger than is necessary to afford a contractor reasonable protection. The permissible variation shall not exceed plus or minus 10 percent unless a different limitation is established in agency regulations. Consideration shall be given to the quantity to which the percentage variation applies. For example, when delivery will be made to multiple destinations and it is desired that the quantity variation apply to the item quantity for each destination, this requirement must be stated in the contract.
(c) Contractors are responsible for delivery of the specified quantity of items in a fixed-price contract, within allowable variations, if any. If a contractor delivers a quantity of items in excess of the contract requirements plus any allowable variation in quantity, particularly small dollar value overshipments, it results in unnecessary administrative costs to the Government in determining disposition of the excess quantity. Accordingly, the contract may include the clause at 52.211-17, Delivery of Excess Quantities, to provide that -
(1) Excess quantities of items totaling up to $250 in value may be retained without compensating the contractor; and
(2) Excess quantities of items totaling over $250 in value may, at the Government's option, be either returned at the contractor's expense or retained and paid for at the contract unit price.