48 CFR § 31.205-37 - Royalties and other costs for use of patents.
(a) Royalties on a patent or amortization of the cost of purchasing a patent or patent rights necessary for the proper performance of the contract and applicable to contract products or processes are allowable unless -
(1) The Government has a license or the right to a free use of the patent;
(2) The patent has been adjudicated to be invalid, or has been administratively determined to be invalid;
(3) The patent is considered to be unenforceable; or
(4) The patent is expired.
(b) Care should be exercised in determining reasonableness when the royalties may have been arrived at as a result of less-than-arm's-length bargaining; e.g., royalties -
(1) Paid to persons, including corporations, affiliated with the contractor;
(2) Paid to unaffiliated parties, including corporations, under an agreement entered into in contemplation that a Government contract would be awarded; or
(3) Paid under an agreement entered into after the contract award.
(c) In any case involving a patent formerly owned by the contractor, the royalty amount allowed should not exceed the cost which would have been allowed had the contractor retained title.
(d) See 31.109 regarding advance agreements.