49 CFR 178.277 - Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases.
Design pressure For the purpose of this section the term “design pressure” is consistent with the definition for design pressure in the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
Holding time is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium conditions, reaches the lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device(s) (for example, pressure control valve or pressure relief device). Holding time must be determined as specified in § 178. 338-9.
Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means the maximum effective gauge pressure permissible at the top of the shell of a loaded portable tank in its operating position including the highest effective pressure during filling and discharge;
Minimum design temperature means the temperature which is used for the design and construction of the shell not higher than the lowest (coldest) service temperature of the contents during normal conditions of filling, discharge and transportation.
Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport, including openings and their closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.
Tank means a construction which normally consists of either:
(b)General design and construction requirements.
(1) Portable tanks must be of seamless or welded steel construction and have a water capacity of more than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Portable tanks must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code.
(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat treated and radiographed as prescribed in Sections V and VIII of the ASME Code except that each tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code must be postweld heat treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1,050 °F tank metal temperature.
(3) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). In addition to the essential variables named in the ASME Code, the following must be considered as essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and the specified rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25% from the procedure qualification. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer and made available to the approval agency and the owner of the portable tank as specified in § 178.273.
(4) Shells and jackets must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Jackets must be made of steel. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum design temperature are proven to be sufficient. In choosing the material, the minimum design temperature must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, to hydrogen embrittlement, to stress corrosion cracking and to resistance to impact.
(5) Any part of a portable tank, including fittings, gaskets and pipe-work, which can be expected normally to come into contact with the refrigerated liquefied gas transported must be compatible with that refrigerated liquefied gas.
(6) The thermal insulation system must include a complete covering of the shell with effective insulating materials. External insulation must be protected by a jacket so as to prevent the ingress of moisture and other damage under normal transport conditions.
(7) When a jacket is so closed as to be gas-tight, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulation space.
(8) Materials which may react with oxygen or oxygen enriched atmospheres in a dangerous manner may not be used in portable tanks intended for the transport of refrigerated liquefied gases having a boiling point below minus 182 °C at atmospheric pressure in locations with the thermal insulation where there is a risk of contact with oxygen or with oxygen enriched fluid.
(9) Insulating materials must not deteriorate to an extent that the effectiveness of the insulation system, as determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(11) of this section, would be reduced in service.
(10) A reference holding time must be determined for each refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport in a portable tank. The reference holding time must be determined by testing in accordance with the requirements of § 178. 338-9, considering the following factors:
(ii) The lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device;
(iii) The initial filling conditions;
(iv) An assumed ambient temperature of 30 °C (86 °F);
(v) The physical properties of the individual refrigerated liquefied gas intended to be transported.
(11) The effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx in watts) may be determined by type testing the portable tank in accordance with a procedure specified in § 178. 338-9(c) or by using the holding time test in § 178. 338-9(b). This test must consist of either:
(i) A constant pressure test (for example, at atmospheric pressure) when the loss of refrigerated liquefied gas is measured over a period of time; or
(12) When performing the constant pressure test, variations in atmospheric pressure must be taken into account. When performing either test, corrections must be made for any variation of the ambient temperature from the assumed ambient temperature reference value of 30 °C (86 °F).
(13) The jacket of a vacuum-insulated double-wall tank must have either an external design pressure not less than 100 kPa (1 bar) gauge pressure calculated in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or a calculated critical collapsing pressure of not less than 200 kPa (2 bar) gauge pressure. Internal and external reinforcements may be included in calculating the ability of the jacket to resist the external pressure.
For the determination of the actual holding time, as indicated by paragraphs (b)(10), (11), (12), and (13), before each journey, refer to § 178. 338-9(b).
(c)Design criteria. For shells with vacuum insulation, the test pressure must not be less than 1.3 times the sum of the MAWP and 100 kPa (1 bar). In no case may the test pressure be less than 300 kPa (3 bar) gauge pressure.
(1) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket, the second being a stop-valve and the third being a blank flange or equivalent device. The shut-off device closest to the jacket must be a self-closing device, which is capable of being closed from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve within 30 seconds of actuation. This device must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F).
(2) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least two mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket and the second a blank flange or equivalent device.
(3) For sections of piping which can be closed at both ends and where liquid product can be trapped, a method of automatic pressure relief must be provided to prevent excess pressure build-up within the piping.
(4) Each filling and discharge opening on a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.
(5) When pressure-building units are used, the liquid and vapor connections to that unit must be provided with a valve as close to the jacket as reasonably practicable to prevent the loss of contents in case of damage to the pressure-building unit. A check valve may be used for this purpose if it is located on the vapor side of the pressure build-up coil.
(6) The materials of construction of valves and accessories must have satisfactory properties at the lowest operating temperature of the portable tank.
(7) Vacuum insulated portable tanks are not required to have an inspection opening.
(e)Pressure relief devices.
(1) Every shell must be provided with not less than two independent reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not lower than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of the type that will resist dynamic forces including surge.
(2) Except for portable tanks used for oxygen, portable tanks for non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen may in addition have frangible discs in parallel with the reclosing devices as specified in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii) and (e)(4)(iii) of this section.
(3) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.
(4)Capacity and setting of pressure relief devices.
(i) In the case of the loss of vacuum in a vacuum-insulated tank or of loss of 20% of the insulation of a portable tank insulated with solid materials, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient so that the pressure (including accumulation) inside the shell does not exceed 120% of the MAWP.
(ii) For non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen, this capacity may be achieved by the use of frangible discs in parallel with the required safety-relief devices. Frangible discs must rupture at nominal pressure equal to the test pressure of the shell.
(iii) Under the circumstances described in paragraphs (e)(4)(i) and (e)(4)(ii) of this section, together with complete fire engulfment, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to the test pressure.
(iv) The required capacity of the relief devices must be calculated in accordance with CGA Pamphlet S-1.2 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).