49 CFR § 178.338-9 - Holding time.

§ 178.338-9 Holding time.

(a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium conditions, reaches the level of the lowest pressure control valve or pressure relief valve setting.

(b) Holding time test.

(1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with a cryogenic liquid having a boiling point, at a pressure of one atmosphere, absolute, no lower than the design service temperature of the tank. The tank must be charged to its maximum permitted filling density with that liquid and stabilized to the lowest practical pressure, which must be equal to or less than the pressure to be used for loading. The cargo tank together with its contents must then be exposed to ambient temperature.

(2) The tank pressure and ambient temperature must be recorded at 3-hour intervals until the pressure level of the contents reaches the set-to-discharge pressure of the pressure control valve or pressure relief valve with the lowest setting. This total time lapse in hours represents the measured holding time at the actual average ambient temperature. This measured holding time for the test cryogenic liquid must be adjusted to an equivalent holding time for each cryogenic liquid that is to be identified on or adjacent to the specification plate, at an average ambient temperature of 85 °F. This is the rated holding time (RHT). The marked rated holding time (MRHT) displayed on or adjacent to the specification plate (see § 178.338-18(c)(10)) may not exceed this RHT.

(c) Optional test regimen.

(1) If more than one cargo tank is made to the same design, only one cargo tank must be subjected to the full holding time test at the time of manufacture. However, each subsequent cargo tank made to the same design must be performance tested during its first trip. The holding time determined in this test may not be less than 90 percent of the marked rated holding time. This test must be performed in accordance with §§ 173.318(g)(3) and 177.840(h) of this subchapter, regardless of the classification of the cryogenic liquid.

(2) Same design. The term “same design” as used in this section means cargo tanks made to the same design type. See § 178.320(a) for definition of “design type”.

(3) For a cargo tank used in nonflammable cryogenic liquid service, in place of the holding time tests prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, the marked rated holding time (MRHT) may be determined as follows:

(i) While the cargo tank is stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the test cryogenic liquid (preferably the lading, where feasible) maintained at approximately one atmosphere. The calculated heat transfer rate must be determined from:

q = [n(Δ h)(85−t1)] / [ts − tf]
q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr.
n = normal evaporation rate (NER), which is the rate of evaporation, determined by the test of a test cryogenic liquid in a cargo tank maintained at a pressure of approximately one atmosphere, absolute, lb/hr.
Δ h = latent heat of vaporization of test fluid at test pressure, Btu/lb.
ts = average temperature of outer shell during test, °F.
t1 = equilibrium temperature of lading at maximum loading pressure, °F.
tf = equilibrium temperature of test fluid at one atmosphere, °F.

(ii) The rated holding time (RHT) must be calculated as follows:

RHT = [(U2 − U1) W] / q
RHT = rated holding time, in hours
U1 and U2 = internal energy for the combined liquid and vapor lading at the pressure offered for transportation, and the set pressure of the applicable pressure control valve or pressure relief valve, respectively, Btu/lb.
W = total weight of the combined liquid and vapor lading in the cargo tank, pounds.
q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr.

(iii) The MRHT (see § 178.338-18(b)(9) of this subchapter) may not exceed the RHT.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983; 48 FR 50442, Nov. 1, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 49 FR 43965, Nov. 1, 1984; 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 57634, Oct. 6, 2003; 71 FR 54397, Sept. 14, 2006]