49 CFR § 655.44 - Post-accident testing.
(a) Accidents. (1) Fatal accidents.
(i) As soon as practicable following an accident involving the loss of human life, an employer shall conduct drug and alcohol tests on each surviving covered employee operating the public transportation vehicle at the time of the accident. Post-accident drug and alcohol testing of the operator is not required under this section if the covered employee is tested under the fatal accident testing requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration rule 49 CFR 389.303(a)(1) or (b)(1).
(ii) The employer shall also drug and alcohol test any other covered employee whose performance could have contributed to the accident, as determined by the employer using the best information available at the time of the decision.
(i) As soon as practicable following an accident not involving the loss of human life in which a public transportation vehicle is involved, the employer shall drug and alcohol test each covered employee operating the public transportation vehicle at the time of the accident unless the employer determines, using the best information available at the time of the decision, that the covered employee's performance can be completely discounted as a contributing factor to the accident. The employer shall also drug and alcohol test any other covered employee whose performance could have contributed to the accident, as determined by the employer using the best information available at the time of the decision.
(ii) If an alcohol test required by this section is not administered within two hours following the accident, the employer shall prepare and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the alcohol test was not promptly administered. If an alcohol test required by this section is not administered within eight hours following the accident, the employer shall cease attempts to administer an alcohol test and maintain the record. Records shall be submitted to FTA upon request of the Administrator.
(c) A covered employee who is subject to post-accident testing who fails to remain readily available for such testing, including notifying the employer or the employer representative of his or her location if he or she leaves the scene of the accident prior to submission to such test, may be deemed by the employer to have refused to submit to testing.
(d) The decision not to administer a drug and/or alcohol test under this section shall be based on the employer's determination, using the best available information at the time of the determination that the employee's performance could not have contributed to the accident. Such a decision must be documented in detail, including the decision-making process used to reach the decision not to test.
(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the delay of necessary medical attention for the injured following an accident or to prohibit a covered employee from leaving the scene of an accident for the period necessary to obtain assistance in responding to the accident or to obtain necessary emergency medical care.
(f) The results of a blood, urine, or breath test for the use of prohibited drugs or alcohol misuse, conducted by Federal, State, or local officials having independent authority for the test, shall be considered to meet the requirements of this section provided such test conforms to the applicable Federal, State, or local testing requirements, and that the test results are obtained by the employer. Such test results may be used only when the employer is unable to perform a post-accident test within the required period noted in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.