The judge may impose sanctions upon the parties as necessary to serve the ends of justice. This authority covers, but is not limited to, the circumstances set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section. Before imposing a sanction, the judge shall provide appropriate prior warning, allow a response to the actual or proposed sanction when feasible, and document the reasons for any resulting sanction in the record.
(a)Failure to comply with an order. When a party fails to comply with an order, the judge may:
(1) Draw an inference in favor of the requesting party with regard to the information sought;
(2) Prohibit the party failing to comply with the order from introducing evidence concerning the information sought, or from otherwise relying upon testimony related to that information;
(3) Permit the requesting party to introduce secondary evidence concerning the information sought; and
(4) Eliminate from consideration any appropriate part of the pleadings or other submissions of the party that fails to comply with the order.
(b)Failure to prosecute or defend appeal. If a party fails to prosecute or defend an appeal, the judge may dismiss the appeal with prejudice or rule in favor of the appellant.
(c)Failure to make timely filing. The judge may refuse to consider any motion or other pleading that is not filed in a timely fashion in compliance with this subpart.
(d)Exclusion of a representative or other person. A judge may exclude or limit the participation of a representative or other person in the case for contumacious conduct or conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice. When the judge excludes a party's representative, the judge will afford the party a reasonable time to obtain another representative before proceeding with the case.
(e)Cancellation, suspension, or termination of hearing. A judge may cancel a scheduled hearing, or suspend or terminate a hearing in progress, for contumacious conduct or conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice on the part of the appellant or the appellant's representative. If the judge suspends a hearing, the parties must be given notice as to when the hearing will resume. If the judge cancels or terminates a hearing, the judge must set a reasonable time during which the record will be kept open for receipt of written submissions.
[54 FR 53504, Dec. 29, 1989, as amended at 77 FR 62366, Oct. 12, 2012]
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