50 CFR 18.3 - Definitions.
Alaskan Native means a person defined in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act ( 43 U.S.C. section 1603(b) ( 85 Stat. 588)) as a citizen of the United States who is of one-fourth degree or more Alaska Indian (including Tsimshian Indians enrolled or not enrolled in the Metlaktla Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or combination thereof. The term includes any Native, as so defined, either or both of whose adoptive parents are not Natives. It also includes, in the absence of proof of a minimum blood quantum, any citizen of the United States who is regarded as an Alaska Native by the Native village or town of which he claims to be a member and whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, was) regarded as Native by any Native village or Native town. Any citizen enrolled by the Secretary pursuant to section 5 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act shall be conclusively presumed to be an Alaskan Native for purposes of this part.
Authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing means items made by an Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo that (a) are composed wholly or in some significant respect of natural materials and (b) are significantly altered from their natural form and are produced, decorated, or fashioned in the exercise of traditional native handicrafts without the use of pantographs, multiple carvers, or similar mass-copying devices. Improved methods of production utilizing modern implements such as sewing machines or modern techniques at a tannery registered pursuant to § 18.23(c) may be used so long as no large-scale mass-production industry results. Traditional native handicrafts include, but are not limited to, weaving, carving, stitching, sewing, lacing, beading, drawing, and painting. The formation of traditional native groups, such as cooperatives, is permitted so long as no large-scale mass production results.
Commercial fishing operation means the lawful harvesting of fish from the marine environment for profit as part of an on-going business enterprise. Such term shall not include sport fishing activities whether or not carried out by charter boat or otherwise, and whether or not the fish so caught are subsequently sold.
Incidental catch means the taking of a marine mammal (a) because it is directly interfering with commercial fishing operations, or (b) as a consequence of the steps used to secure the fish in connection with commercial fishing operations: Provided, however, That a marine mammal so taken must immediately be returned to the sea with a minimum of injury; and Provided, further, That the taking of a marine mammal which otherwise meets the requirements of this definition shall not be considered as incidental catch of that mammal if it is used subsequently to assist in commercial fishing operations.
Marine mammal means any specimen of the following species, whether alive or dead, and any part thereof, including but not limited to, any raw, dressed, or dyed fur or skin:
|Scientific name||Common name||Date listed|
||Polar bear||Dec. 21, 1972.|
||West Indian manatee||Do.|
||West African manatee||Do.|
||Marine otter||Mar. 29, 1978.|
Note: Common names given may be at variance with local usage.
Native village or town means any community, association, tribe, band, clan, or group.
Pregnant means pregnant near term.
Subsistence means the use by Alaskan Natives of marine mammals taken by Alaskan Natives for food, clothing, shelter, heating, transportation, and other uses necessary to maintain the life of the taker or for those who depend upon the taker to provide them with such subsistence.
Take means to harass, hunt, capture, collect, or kill, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture, collect, or kill any marine mammal, including, without limitation, any of the following: The collection of dead animals or parts thereof; the restraint or detention of a marine mammal, no matter how temporary; tagging a marine mammal; or the negligent or intentional operation of an aircraft or vessel, or the doing of any other negligent or intentional act which results in the disturbing or molesting of a marine mammal.
Wasteful manner means any taking or method of taking which is likely to result in the killing or injuring of marine mammals beyond those needed for subsistence purposes or for the making of authentic native articles of handicrafts and clothing or which results in the waste of a substantial portion of the marine mammal and includes without limitation the employment of a method of taking which is not likely to assure the capture or killing of a marine mammal, or which is not immediately followed by a reasonable effort to retrieve the marine mammal.