50 CFR § 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?
(a) Purpose. Under Article III(3(c)) and (5(c)) of the Treaty, an import permit or an introduction-from-the-sea certificate for Appendix-I species can be issued only if the Management Authority is satisfied that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. Trade in Appendix-I species must be subject to particularly strict regulation and authorized only in exceptional circumstances.
(1) We will make this decision on a case-by-case basis considering all available information.
(2) The applicant must provide sufficient information to satisfy us that the intended use is not for primarily commercial purposes.
(4) We will look at all aspects of the intended use of the specimen. If the noncommercial aspects do not clearly predominate, we will consider the import or introduction from the sea to be for primarily commercial purposes.
(5) While the nature of the transaction between the owner in the country of export and the recipient in the country of import or introduction from the sea may have some commercial aspects, such as the exchange of money to cover the costs of shipment and care of specimens during transport, it is the intended use of the specimen, including the purpose of the export, that must not be for primarily commercial purposes.
(6) We will conduct an assessment of factors listed in paragraph (d) of this section. For activities involving an anticipated measurable increase in revenue and other economic value associated with the intended use, we will conduct an analysis as described in paragraph (e) of this section.
(c) Examples. The following are examples of types of transactions in which the noncommercial aspects of the intended use of the specimen may predominate depending on the facts of each situation. The discussions of each example provide further guidance in assessing the actual degree of commerciality on a case-by-case basis. These examples outline circumstances commonly encountered and do not cover all situations where import or introduction from the sea could be found to be not for primarily commercial purposes.
(1) Personal use. Import or introduction from the sea of an Appendix-I specimen for personal use generally is considered to be not for primarily commercial purposes. An example is the import of a personal sport-hunted trophy by the person who hunted the wildlife for display in his or her own home.
(2) Scientific purposes. The import or introduction from the sea of an Appendix-I specimen by a scientist or scientific institution may be permitted in situations where resale, commercial exchange, or exhibit of the specimen for economic benefit is not the primary intended use.
(3) Conservation, education, or training. Generally an Appendix-I specimen may be imported or introduced from the sea by government agencies or nonprofit institutions for purposes of conservation, education, or training. For example, a specimen could be imported or introduced from the sea primarily to train customs staff in effective CITES control, such as for identification of certain types of specimens.
(4) Biomedical industry. Import or introduction from the sea of an Appendix-I specimen by an institution or company in the biomedical industry is initially presumed to be commercial since specimens are typically imported or introduced from the sea to develop and sell products that promote public health for profit. However, if the importer clearly shows that the sale of products is only incidental to public health research and not for the primary purpose of economic benefit or profit, then such an import or introduction from the sea could be considered as scientific research under paragraph (c)(2) of this section if the principles of paragraph (b) of this section are met.
(5) Captive-breeding or artificial propagation programs. The import of an Appendix-I specimen for purposes of establishing a commercial operation for breeding or artificial propagation is considered to be for primarily commercial purposes. As a general rule, import or introduction from the sea of an Appendix-I specimen for a captive-breeding or artificial propagation program must have as a priority the long-term protection and recovery of the species in the wild. The captive-breeding or artificial propagation program must be part of a program aimed at the recovery of the species in the wild and be undertaken with the support of a country within the species' native range. Any profit gained must be used to support this recovery program. If a captive-breeding or artificial propagation operation plans to sell surplus specimens to help offset the costs of its program, import or introduction from the sea would be allowed only if any profit would be used to support the captive-breeding or artificial propagation program to the benefit of the Appendix-I species, not for the personal economic benefit of a private individual or share-holder.
(6) Professional dealers. Import or introduction from the sea by a professional dealer who states a general intention to eventually sell the specimen or its offspring to an undetermined recipient would be considered to be for primarily commercial purposes. However, import or introduction from the sea through a professional dealer by a qualified applicant may be acceptable if the ultimate intended use would be for one of the purposes set out in paragraphs (c)(2), (3), and (5) of this section and where a binding contract, conditioned on the issuing of permits, is in place.
(d) Risk assessment. We review the factors listed in this paragraph (d) to assess the level of scrutiny and amount of information we need to make a finding of whether the intended use of the specimen is not for primarily commercial purposes. We give less scrutiny and require less detailed information when the import or introduction from the sea poses a low risk of being primarily commercial, and give more scrutiny and require more detailed information when the proposed activity poses greater risk. We consider the cumulative risks, recognizing that each aspect of the international trade has a continuum of risk from high to low associated with it as follows:
(1) Type of importer: From for-profit entity to private individual to nonprofit entity.
(2) Ability of the proposed uses to generate revenue: From the ability to generate measurable increases in revenue or other economic value to no anticipated increases in revenue or other economic value.
(3) Appeal of the species: From high public appeal to low public appeal.
(4) Occurrence of the species in the United States: From uncommon to common in a controlled environment in the United States.
(e) Analysis of anticipated revenues and other economic value. We will analyze revenues and other economic value anticipated to result from the use of the specimen for activities with a high risk of being primarily commercial.
(1) We will examine the proposed use of any net profits generated in the United States. We consider net profit to include all funds or other valuable considerations (including enhanced value of common stock shares) received or attained by you or those affiliated with you as a result of the import or introduction from the sea, to the extent that such funds or other valuable considerations exceed the reasonable expenses that are properly attributable to the proposed activity.
(2) We will consider any conservation project to be funded and, if the species was or is to be taken from the wild, how the project benefits the species in its native range, including agreements, timeframes for accomplishing tasks, and anticipated benefits to the species.
(3) We will consider any plans to monitor a proposed conservation project, including expenditure of funds or completion of tasks.
(4) In rare cases involving unusually high net profits, we will require the applicant to provide a detailed analysis of expected revenue (both direct and indirect) and expenses to show anticipated net profit, and a statement from a licensed, independent certified public accountant that the internal accounting system is sufficient to account for and track funds generated by the proposed activities.
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