7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

§ 340.2 Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

(a)Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests. The organisms that are or contain plant pests are included in the taxa or group of organisms contained in the following list. Within any taxonomic series included on the list, the lowest unit of classification actually listed is the taxon or group which may contain organisms which are regulated. Organisms belonging to all lower taxa contained within the group listed are included as organisms that may be or may contain plant pests, and are regulated if they meet the definition of plant pest in § 340.14

4 Any organism belonging to any taxa contained within any listed genera or taxa is only considered to be a plant pest if the organism “can directly or indirectly injure, or cause disease, or damage in any plants or parts thereof, or any processed, manufactured, or other products of plants.” Thus a particular unlisted species within a listed genus would be deemed a plant pest for purposes of § 340.2, if the scientific literature refers to the organism as a cause of direct or indirect injury, disease, or damage to any plants, plant parts or products of plants. (If there is any question concerning the plant pest status of an organism belonging to any listed genera or taxa, the person proposing to introduce the organism in question should consult with APHIS to determine if the organism is subject to regulation.)


Any genetically engineered organism composed of DNA or RNA sequences, organelles, plasmids, parts, copies, and/or analogs, of or from any of the groups of organisms listed below shall be deemed a regulated article if it also meets the definition of plant pest in § 340.1.

Superkingdom Prokaryotae
Kingdom Virus
All members of groups containing plant viruses, and all other plant and insect viruses
Kingdom Monera
Division Bacteria
Family Pseudomonadaceae
Genus Pseudomonas
Genus Xanthomonas
Family Rhizobiaceae
Genus Rhizobium
Genus Bradyrhizobium
Genus Agrobacterium
Genus Phyllobacterium
Family Enterobacteriaceae
Genus Erwinia
Family Streptomycetaceae
Genus Streptomyces
Family Actinomycetacease
Genus Actinomyces
Coryneform group
Genus Clavibacter
Genus Arthrobacter
Genus Curtobacterium
Genus Corynebacteria
Gram-negative phloem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases
Gram-negative xylem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases
And all other bacteria associated with plant or insect diseases
Rickettgial-like organisms associated with insect diseases
Class Mollicutes
Order Mycoplasmatales
Family Spiroplasmataceae
Genus Spiroplasma
Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with plant diseases
Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with insect diseases
Superkingdom Eukaryotae
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Thallobionta
Division Chlorophyta
Genus Cephaleuros
Genus Rhodochytrium
Genus Phyllosiphon
Division Myxomycota
Class Plasmodiophoromycetes
Division Eumycota
Class Chytridiomycetes
Order Chytridiales
Class Oomycetes
Order Lagenidiales
Family Lagenidiaceae
Family Olpidiopsidaceae
Order Peronosporales
Family Albuginaceae
Family Peronosporaceae
Family Pythiaceae
Order Saprolegniales
Family Saprolegniaceae
Family Leptolegniellaceae
Class Zygomycetes
Order Mucorales
Family Choanephoraceae
Family Mucoraceae
Family Entomophthoraceae
Class Hemiascomycetes
Family Protomycetaceae
Family Taphrinaceae
Class Loculoascomycetes
Order Myriangiales
Family Elsinoeaceae
Family Myriangiaceae
Order Asterinales
Order Dothideales
Order Chaetothyriales
Order Hysteriales
Family Parmulariaceae
Family Phillipsiellaceae
Family Hysteriaceae
Order Pleosporales
Order Melanommatales
Class Plectomycetes
Order Eurotiales
Family Ophiostomataceae
Order Ascophaerales
Class Pyrenomycetes
Order Erysiphales
Order Meliolales
Order Xylariales
Order Diaporthales
Order Hypocreales
Order Clavicipitales
Class Discomycetes
Order Phacidiales
Order Helotiales
Family Ascocorticiceae
Family Hemiphacidiaceae
Family Dermataceae
Family Sclerotiniaceae
Order Cytarriales
Order Medeolariales
Order Pezziales
Family Sarcosomataceae
Family Sarcoscyphaceae
Class Teliomycetes
Class Phragmobasidiomycetes
Family Auriculariaceae
Family Ceratobasidiaceae
Class Hymenomycetes
Order Exobasidiales
Order Agaricales
Family Corticiaceae
Family Hymenochaetaceae
Family Echinodontiaceae
Family Fistulinaceae
Family Clavariaceae
Family Polyporaceae
Family Tricholomataceae
Class Hyphomycetes
Class Coelomycetes
And all other fungi associated with plant or insect diseases
Subkingdom Embryobionta

Organisms listed in the Code of Federal Regulations as noxious weeds are regulated under the Federal Noxious Weed Act

Division Magnoliophyta
Family Balanophoraceae - parasitic species
Family Cuscutaceae - parasitic species
Family Hydnoraceae - parasitic species
Family Krameriaceae - parasitic species
Family Lauraceae - parasitic species
Genus Cassytha
Family Lennoaceae - parasitic species
Family Loranthaceae - parasitic species
Family Myzodendraceae - parasitic species
Family Olacaceae - parasitic species
Family Orobanchaceae - parasitic species
Family Rafflesiaceae - parasitic species
Family Santalaceae - parasitic species
Family Scrophulariaceae - parasitic species
Genus Alectra
Genus Bartsia
Genus Buchnera
Genus Buttonia
Genus Castilleja
Genus Centranthera
Genus Cordylanthus
Genus Dasistoma
Genus Euphrasia
Genus Gerardia
Genus Harveya
Genus Hyobanche
Genus Lathraea
Genus Melampyrum
Genus Melasma
Genus Orthantha
Genus Orthocarpus
Genus Pedicularis
Genus Rhamphicarpa
Genus Rhinanthus
Genus Schwalbea
Genus Seymeria
Genus Siphonostegia
Genus Sopubia
Genus Striga
Genus Tozzia
Family Viscaceae - parasitic species
Kingdom Animalia
Subkingdom Protozoa
Genus Phytomonas

And all Protozoa associated with insect diseases

Subkingdom Eumetazoa
Phylum Nemata
Class Secernentea
Order Tylenchida
Family Anguinidae
Family Belonolaimidae
Family Caloosiidae
Family Criconematidae
Family Dolichodoridae
Family Fergusobiidae
Family Hemicycliophoridae
Family Heteroderidae
Family Hoplolaimidae
Family Meloidogynidae
Family Nacobbidae
Family Neotylenchidae
Family Nothotylenchidae
Family Paratylenchidae
Family Pratylenchidae
Family Tylenchidae
Family Tylenchulidae
Order Aphelenchida
Family Aphelenchoididae
Class Adenophorea
Order Dorylaimida
Family Longidoridae
Family Trichodoridae
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Subclass Pulmonata
Order Basommatophora
Superfamily Planorbacea
Order Stylommatophora
Subfamily Strophocheilacea
Family Succineidae
Superfamily Achatinacae
Superfamily Arionacae
Superfamily Limacacea
Superfamily Helicacea
Order Systellommatophora
Superfamily Veronicellacea
Phylum Arthropoda
Class Arachnida
Order Parasitiformes
Suborder Mesostigmata
Superfamily Ascoidea
Superfamily Dermanyssoidea
Order Acariformes
Suborder Prostigmata
Superfamily Eriophyoidea
Superfamily Tetranychoidea
Superfamily Eupodoidea
Superfamily Tydeoidea
Superfamily Erythraenoidea
Superfamily Trombidioidea
Superfamily Hydryphantoidea
Superfamily Tarsonemoidea
Superfamily Pyemotoidea
Suborder Astigmata
Superfamily Hemisarcoptoidea
Superfamily Acaroidea
Class Diplopoda
Order Polydesmida
Class Insecta
Order Collembola
Family Sminthoridae
Order Isoptera
Order Thysanoptera
Order Orthoptera
Family Acrididae
Family Gryllidae
Family Gryllacrididae
Family Gryllotalpidae
Family Phasmatidae
Family Ronaleidae
Family Tettigoniidae
Family Tetrigidae
Order Hemiptera
Family Thaumastocoridae
Family Aradidae
Superfamily Piesmatoidea
Superfamily Lygaeoidea
Superfamily Idiostoloidea
Superfamily Coreoidea
Superfamily Pentatomoidea
Superfamily Pyrrhocoroidea
Superfamily Tingoidea
Superfamily Miroidea
Order Homoptera
Order Coleoptera
Family Anobiidae
Family Apionidae
Family Anthribidae
Family Bostrichidae
Family Brentidae
Family Bruchidae
Family Buprestidae
Family Byturidae
Family Cantharidae
Family Carabidae
Family Cerambycidae
Family Chrysomelidae
Family Coccinellidae
Subfamily Epilachninae
Family Curculionidae
Family Dermestidae
Family Elateridae
Family Hydrophilidae
Genus Helophorus
Family Lyctidae
Family Meloidae
Family Mordellidae
Family Platypodidae
Family Scarabaeidae
Subfamily Melolonthinae
Subfamily Rutelinae
Subfamily Cetoniinae
Subfamily Dynastinae
Family Scolytidae
Family Selbytidae
Family Tenebrionidae
Order Lepidoptera
Order Diptera
Family Agromyzidae
Family Anthomyiidae
Family Cecidomyiidae
Family Chloropidae
Family Ephydridae
Family Lonchaeidae
Family Muscidae
Genus Atherigona
Family Otitidae
Genus Euxeta
Family Syrphidae
Family Tephritidae
Family Tipulidae
Order Hymenoptera
Family Apidae
Family Caphidae
Family Chalcidae
Family Cynipidae
Family Eurytomidae
Family Formicidae
Family Psilidae
Family Siricidae
Family Tenthredinidae
Family Torymidae
Family Xylocopidae

Unclassified organisms and/or organisms whose classification is unknown.


(1) A limited permit for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in Escherichia coli genotype K-12 (strain K-12 and its derivatives), sterile strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis, provided that all the following conditions are met:

(i) The microorganisms are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b)(3);

(ii) The cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does not contain other conjugation proficient plasmids or generalized transducing phages;

(iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest;

(iv) The cloned genes are not carried on an expression vector if the cloned genes code for:

(A) A toxin to plants or plant products, or a toxin to organisms beneficial to plants; or

(B) Other factors directly involved in eliciting plant disease (i.e., cell wall degrading enzymes); or

(C) Substances acting as, or inhibitory to, plant growth regulators.

(2) A limited permit for interstate movement is not required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in the genome of the plantArabiodopsis thaliana, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The plants or plant materials are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b) (1), (2), and (3);

(ii) The cloned genetic material is stably integrated into the plant genome;

(iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest.

[ 52 FR 22908, June 16, 1987, as amended at 53 FR 12913, Apr. 20, 1988; 55 FR 53276, Dec. 28, 1990; 58 FR 17056, Mar. 31, 1993]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 7 - AGRICULTURE

§ 7701 - Findings

§ 7702 - Definitions

§ 7711 - Regulation of movement of plant pests

§ 7712 - Regulation of movement of plants, plant products, biological control organisms, noxious weeds, articles, and means of conveyance

§ 7712a - Reduction in backlog of agricultural export petitions

§ 7713 - Notification and holding requirements upon arrival

§ 7714 - General remedial measures for new plant pests and noxious weeds

§ 7715 - Declaration of extraordinary emergency and resulting authorities

§ 7716 - Recovery of compensation for unauthorized activities

§ 7717 - Control of grasshoppers and Mormon crickets

§ 7718 - Certification for exports

§ 7719 - Methyl bromide

§ 7720 - National plan for control and management of Sudden Oak Death

§ 7721 - Plant pest and disease management and disaster prevention

§ 7731 - Inspections, seizures, and warrants

§ 7732 - Collection of information

§ 7733 - Subpoena authority

§ 7734 - Penalties for violation

§ 7735 - Enforcement actions of Attorney General

§ 7736 - Court jurisdiction

§ 7751 - Cooperation

§ 7752 - Buildings, land, people, claims, and agreements

§ 7753 - Reimbursable agreements

§ 7754 - Regulations and orders

§ 7755 - Protection for mail handlers

§ 7756 - Preemption

§ 7757 - Severability

§ 7758 - Repeal of superseded laws

§ 7759 - Fees for inspection of plants for exporting or transiting

§ 7760 - State terminal inspection; transmission of mailed packages for State inspection; nonmailable matter; punishment for violations; rules and regulations by United States Postal Service

§ 7761 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–79, title X, § 10007(c), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 947

§ 7771 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 7772 - Transfer authority

§ 7781 - Definitions

§ 7782 - Establishment of program

§ 7783 - Grants to weed management entities

§ 7784 - Agreements

§ 7785 - Relationship to other programs

§ 7786 - Authorization of appropriations

U.S. Code: Title 31 - MONEY AND FINANCE