7 CFR § 4279.144 - Appraisals.
Lenders must obtain appraisals for real estate and chattel collateral when the value of the collateral exceeds $250,000, unless the chattel is newly-acquired equipment and the value is supported by a bill of sale. For collateral values under this threshold, lenders must follow their primary regulator's policies relating to appraisals and evaluations or, if the lender is not regulated, normal banking practices and generally accepted methods of determining value. Lenders must use the fair market value as established by the appraisal and discounting policies outlined in § 4279.131(b) to meet the discounted collateral coverage requirements of this subpart. Lenders are responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the actual value of the collateral. The Agency will require documentation that the appraiser has the necessary experience and competency to appraise the property in question. Appraisals must not be more than 1 year old, and a more recent appraisal may be requested by the Agency in order to reflect more current market conditions. For loan servicing purposes, an appraisal may be updated in lieu of a complete new appraisal when the original appraisal is more than 1 year old but less than 2 years old. Failure by the lender to follow these requirements will be considered not acting in a reasonably prudent manner.
(a) All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking and servicing transactions must meet the requirements contained in the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) of 1989, and the appropriate guidelines contained in Standards 1 and 2 of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practices (USPAP) and be performed by a State Certified General Appraiser. Notwithstanding any exemption that may exist for transactions guaranteed by a Federal government agency, all appraisals obtained by the lender for loanmaking and servicing must conform to the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluations Guidelines established by the lender's primary Federal or State regulator. All appraisals must include consideration of the potential effects from a release of hazardous substances or petroleum products or other environmental hazards on the fair market value of the collateral, if applicable. The lender must complete and submit its technical review of the appraisal. For construction projects, the lender must use the “as-completed” market value of the real estate to determine value of the real estate property.
(b) Values of both tangible and intangible assets, including values attributed to business valuation or as a going concern, must be reported individually/separately in the appraisal as values attributed to business valuation or as a going concern will be deducted from the reconciled fair market value of the hard assets for purposes of calculating collateral coverage.
(c) Chattels with values under the $250,000 threshold must be evaluated in accordance with the lender's primary regulator's policies relating to appraisals and evaluations or, if the lender is not regulated, normal banking practices and generally accepted methods of determining value. Chattel appraisals must reflect the age, condition, and remaining useful life of the equipment. If the appraisal is completed by a State licensed/certified appraiser, the appraisal report must comply with USPAP Standards 7 and 8.