Reporting corporation -
(1) In general. For purposes of section 6038A, a reporting corporation is either a domestic corporation that is 25-percent foreign-owned as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, or a foreign corporation that is 25-percent foreign-owned and engaged in trade or business within the United States. After November 4, 1990, a foreign corporation engaged in a trade or business within the United States at any time during a taxable year is a reporting corporation. See section 6038C. A domestic business entity that is wholly owned by one foreign person and that is otherwise classified under § 301.7701-3(b)(1)(ii) of this chapter as disregarded as an entity separate from its owner is treated as an entity separate from its owner and classified as a domestic corporation for purposes of section 6038A. See § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(vi) of this chapter.
(2) 25-percent foreign-owned. A corporation is 25-percent foreign-owned if it has at least one direct or indirect 25-percent foreign shareholder at any time during the taxable year.
(3) 25-percent foreign shareholder -
(i) In general. A foreign person is a 25-percent foreign shareholder of a corporation if the person owns at least 25 percent of -
(A) The total voting power of all classes of stock of the corporation entitled to vote, or
(B) The total value of all classes of stock of the corporation.
(ii) Total voting power and value. In determining whether one foreign person owns 25 percent of the total voting power of all classes of stock of a corporation entitled to vote or 25 percent of the total value of all classes of stock of a corporation, consideration will be given to all the facts and circumstances of each case, under principles similar to § 1.957-1(b)(2) (consideration of arrangements to shift formal voting power away from a foreign person).
(iii) Direct 25-percent foreign shareholder. A foreign person is a direct 25-percent foreign shareholder if it owns directly at least 25 percent of the stock of the reporting corporation, either by vote or by value.
(iv) Indirect 25-percent foreign shareholder. A foreign person is an indirect 25-percent foreign shareholder if it owns indirectly (or under the attribution rules of section 318 is considered to own indirectly) at least 25 percent of the stock of the reporting corporation, either by vote or by value.
(4) Application to prior open years. For taxable years beginning before July 11, 1989, the definition of a reporting corporation under this paragraph applies in determining whether a foreign-owned corporation is a reporting corporation. An examination may be reopened if the statute of limitations period for that taxable year has not expired. A taxable year may not be reopened under section 6038A for examination purposes if the taxable year is open under section 6511 only for purposes of the carryback of net operating losses or net capital losses.
(5) Exceptions -
(i) Treaty country residents having no permanent establishment. A foreign corporation that has no permanent establishment in the United States under an applicable income tax convention is not a reporting corporation for purposes of section 6038A and this section. Accordingly, such a foreign corporation is not subject to §§ 1.6038A-2, 1.6038A-3, and 1.6038A-5. It must timely and fully provide the required notice to the Commissioner under section 6114. See section 6114 and the regulations thereunder for the notice that such a corporation must file and the applicable penalties for failure to file such notice.
(ii) Qualified exempt shipping income. A foreign corporation whose gross income is exempt from U.S. taxation under section 883 is not a reporting corporation provided that it timely and fully complies with the reporting requirements required to claim such exemption. In the event that such a corporation does not timely and fully comply with the reporting requirements under sections 887 and 883, it will be a reporting corporation subject to section 6038A, including the application of the monetary penalty for failure to file required information.
(iii) Status as foreign related party. Nothing in this paragraph affects the determination of whether a person is a foreign related party as defined in paragraph (g) of this section.
(d) Related party. The term “related party” means -
(1) Any direct or indirect 25-percent foreign shareholder of the reporting corporation,
(2) Any person who is related within the meaning of sections 267(b) or 707(b)(1) to the reporting corporation or to a 25-percent foreign shareholder of the reporting corporation, or
(3) Any other person who is related to the reporting corporation within the meaning of section 482 and the regulations thereunder. However, the term “related party” does not include any corporation filing a consolidated federal income tax return with the reporting corporation.