Fraud. For purposes of this part, fraud is defined as a deception or misrepresentation by a provider, beneficiary, sponsor, or any person acting on behalf of a provider, sponsor, or beneficiary with the knowledge (or who had reason to know or should have known) that the deception or misrepresentation could result in some unauthorized CHAMPUS benefit to self or some other person, or some unauthorized CHAMPUS payment, or (2) a claim that is false or fictitious, or includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false or fictitious, or includes or is supported by any written statement that (a) omits a material fact and (b) is false or fictitious as a result of such omission and (c) is a statement in which the person making, presenting, or submitting such statement has a duty to include such material fact. It is presumed that, if a deception or misrepresentation is established and a CHAMPUS claim is filed, the person responsible for the claim had the requisite knowledge. This presumption is rebuttable only by substantial evidence. It is further presumed that the provider of the services is responsible for the actions of all individuals who file a claim on behalf of the provider (for example, billing clerks); this presumption may only be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence.
32 CFR § 199.2
General. In an effort to be as specific as possible as to the word and intent of CHAMPUS, the following definitions have been developed. While many of the definitions are general and some assign meaning to relatively common terms within the health insurance environment, others are applicable only to CHAMPUS; however, they all appear in this part solely for the purpose of the Program. Except when otherwise specified, the definitions in this section apply generally throughout this part.