Asset composition tests

Asset composition tests -
(1) Determination of amount of assets. An entity must use the Federal income tax basis of an asset for purposes of determining whether substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations (or interests therein) and whether more than 50 percent of those debt obligations (or interests) consist of real estate mortgages (or interests therein). For purposes of this paragraph, an entity determines the basis of an asset with the assumption that the entity is not a taxable mortgage pool.
(2) Substantially all -
(i) In general. Whether substantially all of the assets of an entity consist of debt obligations (or interests therein) is based on all the facts and circumstances.
(ii) Safe harbor. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, if less than 80 percent of the assets of an entity consist of debt obligations (or interests therein), then less than substantially all of the assets of the entity consist of debt obligations (or interests therein).
(3) Equity interests in pass-through arrangements. The equity interest of an entity in a partnership, S corporation, trust, REIT, or other pass-through arrangement is deemed to have the same composition as the entity's share of the assets of the pass-through arrangement. For example, if an entity's stock interest in a REIT has an adjusted basis of $20,000, and the assets of the REIT consist of equal portions of real estate mortgages and other real estate assets, then the entity is treated as holding $10,000 of real estate mortgages and $10,000 of other real estate assets.
(4) Treatment of certain credit enhancement contracts -
(i) In general. A credit enhancement contract (as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section) is not treated as a separate asset of an entity for purposes of the asset composition tests set forth in section 7701(i)(2)(A)(i), but instead is treated as part of the asset to which it relates. Furthermore, any collateral supporting a credit enhancement contract is not treated as an asset of an entity solely because it supports the guarantee represented by that contract.
(ii) Credit enhancement contract defined. For purposes of this section, a credit enhancement contract is any arrangement whereby a person agrees to guarantee full or partial payment of the principal or interest payable on a debt obligation (or interest therein) or on a pool of such obligations (or interests), or full or partial payment on one or more classes of debt obligations under which an entity is the obligor, in the event of defaults or delinquencies on debt obligations, unanticipated losses or expenses incurred by the entity, or lower than expected returns on investments. Types of credit enhancement contracts may include, but are not limited to, pool insurance contracts, certificate guarantee insurance contracts, letters of credit, guarantees, or agreements whereby an entity, a mortgage servicer, or other third party agrees to make advances (regardless of whether, under the terms of the agreement, the payor is obligated, or merely permitted, to make those advances). An agreement by a debt servicer to advance to an entity out of its own funds an amount to make up for delinquent payments on debt obligations is a credit enhancement contract. An agreement by a debt servicer to pay taxes and hazard insurance premiums on property securing a debt obligation, or other expenses incurred to protect an entity's security interests in the collateral in the event that the debtor fails to pay such taxes, insurance premiums, or other expenses, is a credit enhancement contract.
(5) Certain assets not treated as debt obligations -
(i) In general. For purposes of section 7701(i)(2)(A), real estate mortgages that are seriously impaired are not treated as debt obligations. Whether a mortgage is seriously impaired is based on all the facts and circumstances including, but not limited to: the number of days delinquent, the loan-to-value ratio, the debt service coverage (based upon the operating income from the property), and the debtor's financial position and stake in the property. However, except as provided in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, no single factor in and of itself is determinative of whether a loan is seriously impaired.
(ii) Safe harbor -
(A) In general. Unless an entity is receiving or anticipates receiving payments with respect to a mortgage, a single family residential real estate mortgage is seriously impaired if payments on the mortgage are more than 89 days delinquent, and a multi-family residential or commercial real estate mortgage is seriously impaired if payments on the mortgage are more than 59 days delinquent. Whether an entity anticipates receiving payments with respect to a mortgage is based on all the facts and circumstances.
(B) Payments with respect to a mortgage defined. For purposes of paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section, payments with respect to a mortgage mean any payments on the mortgage as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section if those payments are substantial and relatively certain as to amount and any payments on the mortgage as defined in paragraph (f)(2) (ii) or (iii) of this section.
(C) Entity treated as not anticipating payments. With respect to any testing day (as defined in § 301.7701(i)-3(c)(2)), an entity is treated as not having anticipated receiving payments on the mortgage as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section if 180 days after the testing day, and despite making reasonable efforts to resolve the mortgage, the entity is not receiving such payments and has not entered into any agreement to receive such payments.
(d) Real estate mortgages or interests therein defined -
(1) In general. For purposes of section 7701(i)(2)(A)(i), the term real estate mortgages (or interests therein) includes all -
(i) Obligations (including participations or certificates of beneficial ownership therein) that are principally secured by an interest in real property (as defined in paragraph (d)(3) of this section);
(ii) Regular and residual interests in a REMIC; and
(iii) Stripped bonds and stripped coupons (as defined in section 1286(e) (2) and (3)) if the bonds (as defined in section 1286(e)(1)) from which such stripped bonds or stripped coupons arose would have qualified as real estate mortgages or interests therein.
(2) Interests in real property and real property defined -
(i) In general. The definition of interests in real property set forth in § 1.856-3(c) of this chapter and the definition of real property set forth in § 1.856-3(d) of this chapter apply to define those terms for purposes of paragraph (d) of this section.
(ii) Manufactured housing. For purposes of this section, the definition of real property includes manufactured housing, provided the properties qualify as single family residences under section 25(e)(10) and without regard to the treatment of the properties under state law.
(3) Principally secured by an interest in real property -
(i) Tests for determining whether an obligation is principally secured. For purposes of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, an obligation is principally secured by an interest in real property only if it satisfies either the test set out in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of this section or the test set out in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section.
(A) The 80 percent test. An obligation is principally secured by an interest in real property if the fair market value of the interest in real property (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section) securing the obligation was at least equal to 80 percent of the adjusted issue price of the obligation at the time the obligation was originated (that is, the issue date). For purposes of this test, the fair market value of the real property interest is first reduced by the amount of any lien on the real property interest that is senior to the obligation being tested, and is reduced further by a proportionate amount of any lien that is in parity with the obligation being tested.
(B) Alternative test. An obligation is principally secured by an interest in real property if substantially all of the proceeds of the obligation were used to acquire, improve, or protect an interest in real property that, at the origination date, is the only security for the obligation. For purposes of this test, loan guarantees made by Federal, state, local governments or agencies, or other third party credit enhancement, are not viewed as additional security for a loan. An obligation is not considered to be secured by property other than real property solely because the obligor is personally liable on the obligation.
(ii) Obligations secured by real estate mortgages (or interests therein), or by combinations of real estate mortgages (or interests therein) and other assets -
(A) In general. An obligation secured only by real estate mortgages (or interests therein), as defined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, is treated as an obligation secured by an interest in real property to the extent of the value of the real estate mortgages (or interests therein). An obligation secured by both real estate mortgages (or interests therein) and other assets is treated as an obligation secured by an interest in real property to the extent of both the value of the real estate mortgages (or interests therein) and the value of so much of the other assets that constitute real property. Thus, under this paragraph, a collateralized mortgage obligation may be an obligation principally secured by an interest in real property. This section is applicable only to obligations issued after December 31, 1991.
(B) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this paragraph (d)(3)(ii):
(e) Two or more maturities -
(1) In general. For purposes of section 7701(i)(2)(A)(ii), debt obligations have two or more maturities if they have different stated maturities or if the holders of the obligations possess different rights concerning the acceleration of or delay in the maturities of the obligations.
(2) Obligations that are allocated credit risk unequally. Debt obligations that are allocated credit risk unequally do not have, by that reason alone, two or more maturities. Credit risk is the risk that payments of principal or interest will be reduced or delayed because of a default on an asset that supports the debt obligations.
(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (e):
(ii) The Class A bonds do not have different maturities. Each outstanding Class A bond has an equal chance of being redeemed because the selection process is random. The holders of the Class A bonds, therefore, have identical rights concerning the maturities of their obligations.
(ii) The Class C bonds and the Class D bonds share credit risk unequally because of the subordination feature. However, neither this difference, nor the difference in interest rates, causes the bonds to have different maturities. The result is the same if, in addition to the other terms described in paragraph (i) of this Example 2, the Class C bonds are accelerated as a result of the issuer becoming unable to make payments on the Class C bonds as they become due.
(f) Relationship test -
(1) In general. For purposes of section 7701(i)(2)(A)(iii), payments on debt obligations under which an entity is the obligor (liability obligations) bear a relationship to payments (as defined in paragraph (f)(2) of this section) on debt obligations an entity holds as assets (asset obligations) if under the terms of the liability obligations (or underlying arrangement) the timing and amount of payments on the liability obligations are in large part determined by the timing and amount of payments or projected payments on the asset obligations. For purposes of the relationship test, any payment arrangement, including a swap or other hedge, that achieves a substantially similar result is treated as satisfying the test. For example, any arrangement where the timing and amount of payments on liability obligations are determined by reference to a group of assets (or an index or other type of model) that has an expected payment experience similar to that of the asset obligations is treated as satisfying the relationship test.
(2) Payments on asset obligations defined. For purposes of section 7701(i)(2)(A)(iii) and this section, payments on asset obligations include -
(i) A payment of principal or interest on an asset obligation, including a prepayment of principal, a payment under a credit enhancement contract (as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section) and a payment from a settlement at a discount (other than a substantial discount);
(ii) A payment from a settlement at a substantial discount, but only if the settlement is arranged, whether in writing or otherwise, prior to the issuance of the liability obligations; and
(iii) A payment from the foreclosure on or sale of an asset obligation, but only if the foreclosure or sale is arranged, whether in writing or otherwise, prior to the issuance of the liability obligations.
(3) Safe harbor for entities formed to liquidate assets. Payments on liability obligations of an entity do not bear a relationship to payments on asset obligations of the entity if -
(i) The entity's organizational documents manifest clearly that the entity is formed for the primary purpose of liquidating its assets and distributing proceeds of liquidation;
(ii) The entity's activities are all reasonably necessary to and consistent with the accomplishment of liquidating assets;
(iii) The entity plans to satisfy at least 50 percent of the total issue price of each of its liability obligations having a different maturity with proceeds from liquidation and not with scheduled payments on its asset obligations; and
(iv) The terms of the entity's liability obligations (or underlying arrangement) provide that within three years of the time it first acquires assets to be liquidated the entity either -
(A) Liquidates; or
(B) Begins to pass through without delay all payments it receives on its asset obligations (less reasonable allowances for expenses) as principal payments on its liability obligations in proportion to the adjusted issue prices of the liability obligations.

Source

26 CFR § 301.7701(i)-1


Scoping language

None
Is this correct? or