Applicable tax-exempt organization

Applicable tax-exempt organization -
(1) In general. Applicable tax-exempt organization or ATEO means any organization that is one of the following types of organizations:
(i) Section 501(a) organization. The organization is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section);
(ii) Section 521 farmers' cooperative. The organization is a farmers' cooperative organization described in section 521(b)(1);
(iii) Section 115(1) organization. The organization has income excluded from taxation under section 115(1); or
(iv) Section 527 political organization. The organization is a political organization described in section 527(e)(1).
(2) Certain foreign organizations. Any foreign organization described in section 4948(b) that either is exempt from tax under section 501(a) or is a taxable private foundation (section 4948(b) organization) is not an ATEO. A foreign organization is an organization not created or organized in the United States or in any possession thereof, or under the law of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, or any possession of the United States. See section 4948(b) and § 53.4948-1. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2) and the application of section 4960 to a taxable year, an organization's status as a section 4948(b) organization is determined at the end of its taxable year.
(c) Applicable year -
(1) In general. Applicable year means the calendar year ending with or within the ATEO's taxable year. See § 53.4960-4 regarding how an ATEO's applicable year affects the liability of related organizations.
(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(i) Example 1 (Calendar year taxpayer) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 1 uses the calendar year as its taxable year and became an ATEO before 2022.
(B) Conclusion. ATEO 1's applicable year for its 2022 taxable year is the period from January 1, 2022, through December 31, 2022 (that is, the 2022 calendar year).
(ii) Example 2 (Fiscal year taxpayer) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 2 uses a taxable year that starts July 1 and ends June 30 and became an ATEO before 2022.
(B) Conclusion. ATEO 2's applicable year for the taxable year beginning July 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023, is the 2022 calendar year.
(3) Short applicable years -
(i) In general. An ATEO may have an applicable year that does not span the entire calendar year for the initial taxable year that the organization is an ATEO or for the taxable year in which the taxpayer ceases to be an ATEO. The beginning and end dates of the applicable year in the case of an ATEO's change in status depend on when the change in status occurs.
(ii) Initial year of ATEO status. For the taxable year in which an ATEO first becomes an ATEO, applicable year means the period beginning on the date the ATEO first becomes an ATEO and ending on the last day of the calendar year ending with or within such taxable year (or, if earlier, the date of termination of ATEO status, as described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(A) of this section). If the taxable year in which an ATEO first becomes an ATEO ends before the end of the calendar year in which the ATEO first becomes an ATEO, then there is no applicable year for the ATEO's first taxable year; however, for the ATEO's next taxable year, applicable year means the period beginning on the date the ATEO first becomes an ATEO and ending on December 31 of the calendar year (or, if earlier, the date of termination of ATEO status, as described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(A) of this section).
(iii) Year of termination of ATEO status -
(A) Termination on or before the close of the calendar year ending with or within the taxable year of termination. If an ATEO has a termination of ATEO status during the taxable year and the termination of ATEO status occurs on or before the close of the calendar year ending with or within such taxable year, then, for the taxable year of termination of ATEO status, applicable year means the period starting January 1 of the calendar year of the termination of ATEO status and ending on the date of the termination of ATEO status.
(B) Termination after the close of the calendar year ending in the taxable year of termination. If an ATEO has a termination of ATEO status during the taxable year and the termination of ATEO status occurs after the close of the calendar year ending within such taxable year, then, for the taxable year of the termination of ATEO status, applicable year means both the calendar year ending within such taxable year and the period beginning January 1 of the calendar year of the termination of ATEO status and ending on the date of the termination of ATEO status. Both such applicable years are treated as separate applicable years. See § 53.4960-4(b)(2)(ii) for rules regarding calculation of the tax in the event there are multiple applicable years associated with a taxable year.
(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (c)(3) of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume any entity referred to as “ATEO” is an ATEO and any entity referred to as “CORP” is not an ATEO.
(i) Example 1 (Taxable year of formation ending after December 31) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 1, ATEO 2, and CORP 1 are related organizations that all use a taxable year that starts July 1 and ends June 30. ATEO 1 is recognized as a section 501(c)(3) organization by the IRS on May 8, 2023, effective as of October 1, 2022. ATEO 2 became an ATEO in 2017.
(B) Conclusion (ATEO 1). ATEO 1's applicable year for the taxable year beginning October 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023, is the period beginning October 1, 2022, and ending December 31, 2022. For purposes of determining the amount of remuneration paid by ATEO 1 and all related organizations for ATEO 1's taxable year beginning October 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023, (including for purposes of determining ATEO 1's covered employees), only remuneration paid between October 1, 2022, and December 31, 2022, is taken into account. Thus, any remuneration paid by ATEO 1, ATEO 2, and CORP 1 before October 1, 2022, is disregarded for purposes of ATEO 1's applicable year associated with its initial taxable year.
(C) Conclusion (ATEO 2). ATEO 2's applicable year for its taxable year beginning July 1, 2022, and ending June 30, 2023, is the 2022 calendar year. Thus, any remuneration paid by ATEO 1, ATEO 2, and CORP 1 during the 2022 calendar year is taken into account for purposes of determining ATEO 2's covered employees and remuneration paid for ATEO 2's taxable year ending June 30, 2023.
(ii) Example 2 (Taxable year of formation ending before December 31) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section (Example 1), except that ATEO 1 is recognized as a section 501(c)(3) organization effective as of March 15, 2023.
(B) Conclusion. ATEO 1 has no applicable year for the taxable year starting March 15, 2023, and ending June 30, 2023, because no calendar year ends (or termination of ATEO status occurs) with or within the taxable year. ATEO 1's applicable year for the taxable year ending June 30, 2024, is the period beginning March 15, 2023, and ending December 31, 2023. For purposes of determining the amount of remuneration paid by ATEO 1 and all related organizations for ATEO 1's taxable year ending June 30, 2024 (including for purposes of determining ATEO 1's covered employees), only remuneration paid between March 15, 2023, and December 31, 2023, is taken into account. The conclusion for ATEO 2 is the same as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(C) of this section (Example 1).
(iii) Example 3 (Termination before the close of the calendar year ending in the taxable year of termination) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section (Example 1). In addition, ATEO 1 has a termination of ATEO status on September 30, 2024.
(B) Conclusion. For ATEO 1's taxable year beginning July 1, 2024, and ending September 30, 2024, ATEO 1's applicable year is the period beginning January 1, 2024, and ending September 30, 2024.
(iv) Example 4 (Termination after the close of the calendar year ending in the taxable year of termination) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section (Example 1). In addition, ATEO 1 has a termination of ATEO status on March 31, 2025.
(B) Conclusion. For ATEO 1's taxable year beginning July 1, 2024, and ending March 31, 2025, ATEO 1 has two applicable years: the 2024 calendar year, and the period beginning on January 1, 2025, and ending on March 31, 2025.
(d) Covered employee -
(1) In general. For each taxable year, covered employee means any individual who is one of the five highest-compensated employees of the ATEO for the taxable year or was a covered employee of the ATEO (or any predecessor) for any preceding taxable year beginning after December 31, 2016.
(2) Five highest-compensated employees -
(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d)(2), an individual is one of an ATEO's five highest- compensated employees for the taxable year if the individual is among the five employees of the ATEO with the highest amount of remuneration paid during the applicable year, as determined under § 53.4960-2. However, remuneration for which the deduction is disallowed by reason of section 162(m) is taken into account for purposes of determining an ATEO's five highest-compensated employees. The five highest-compensated employees of an ATEO for the taxable year are identified on the basis of the total remuneration paid during the applicable year to the employee for services performed as an employee of the ATEO or any related organization. An ATEO may have fewer than five highest-compensated employees for a taxable year if it has fewer than five employees other than employees who are disregarded under paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(2), a grant of a legally binding right (within the meaning of § 1.409A-1(b)) to vested remuneration is considered to be remuneration paid as of the date of grant, as described in § 53.4960-2(c)(2), and a person or governmental entity is considered to grant a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration if the person or governmental entity grants a legally binding right to remuneration that is not vested within the meaning of § 53.4960-2(c)(2). An employee is disregarded for purposes of determining an ATEO's five highest-compensated employees for a taxable year if, during the applicable year, neither the ATEO nor any related organization paid remuneration or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration to the individual for services the individual performed as an employee of the ATEO or any related organization.
(ii) Limited hours exception -
(A) In general. An individual is disregarded for purposes of determining an ATEO's five highest-compensated employees for a taxable year if all of the following requirements are met:
(1) Remuneration requirement. Neither the ATEO nor any related ATEO paid remuneration or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration to the individual for services the individual performed as an employee of the ATEO during the applicable year; and
(2) Hours of service requirement. The individual performed services as an employee of the ATEO and all related ATEOs for no more than 10 percent of the total hours the individual worked as an employee of the ATEO and any related organizations during the applicable year. An ATEO may instead make this determination based on the total days the individual worked as an employee of the ATEO and all related ATEOs as a percentage of the total days worked as an employee of the ATEO and all related organizations, provided that for purposes of the calculation, any day that the individual worked at least one hour as an employee of the ATEO or a related ATEO is treated as a day worked as an employee of the ATEO and not for any other organization.
(B) Certain payments disregarded. For purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section, a payment of remuneration made to the individual by a related organization that is an employer of the individual and for which the related organization is neither entitled to reimbursement by the ATEO nor entitled to any other consideration from the ATEO is not considered remuneration paid by the ATEO under § 53.4960-2(b)(1), and a payment of remuneration made to the individual by a related organization is not treated as remuneration paid by the ATEO under § 53.4960-2(b)(2).
(C) Safe harbor. For purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A)(2) of this section, an individual is treated as having performed services as an employee of the ATEO and all related ATEOs for no more than 10 percent of the total hours the individual worked as an employee of the ATEO and all related organizations during the applicable year if the employee performed no more than 100 hours of service as an employee of the ATEO and all related ATEOs during the applicable year.
(iii) Nonexempt funds exception -
(A) In general. An individual is disregarded for purposes of determining an ATEO's five highest-compensated employees for a taxable year if all the following requirements are met:
(1) Remuneration requirement. Neither the ATEO, nor any related ATEO, nor any taxable related organization controlled by the ATEO, or by one or more related ATEOs, either alone or together with the ATEO, paid remuneration or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration to the individual for services the individual performed as an employee of an ATEO during the applicable year and the preceding applicable year. For this purpose, whether a taxable related organization is controlled by the ATEO (or one or more related ATEOs) is determined without regard to paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B)(2) of this section and without regard to section 318(a)(3) for purposes of applying paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(A) of this section, so that an interest in a corporation or nonstock entity is not attributed downward in determining control of the corporation or nonstock entity;
(2) Hours of service requirement. The individual performed services as an employee of the ATEO and any related ATEOs for not more than 50 percent of the total hours worked as an employee of the ATEO and any related organizations during the applicable year and the preceding applicable year. An ATEO may instead make this determination based on the total days the individual worked as an employee of the ATEO and all related ATEOs as a percentage of the total days worked as an employee of the ATEO and all related organizations, provided that for purposes of the calculation, any day that the individual worked at least one hour as an employee of the ATEO or a related ATEO is treated as a day worked as an employee of the ATEO and not for any other organization; and
(3) Related organizations requirement. No related organization that paid remuneration or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration to the individual during the applicable year and the preceding applicable year provided services for a fee to the ATEO, to any related ATEO, or to any taxable related organization controlled by the ATEO or by one or more related ATEOs, either alone or together with the ATEO, during the applicable year and the preceding applicable year. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A)(3), whether a taxable related organization is controlled by the ATEO (or one or more related ATEOs) is determined without regard to paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B)(2) of this section and without regard to section 318(a)(3) for purposes of applying paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(A) of this section, so that an interest in a corporation or nonstock entity is not attributed downward in determining control of the corporation or nonstock entity.
(B) Certain payments disregarded. For purposes of paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A)(1) of this section, a payment of remuneration made to an individual by a related organization that is an employer of the individual and for which the related organization is neither entitled to reimbursement by the ATEO nor entitled to any other consideration from the ATEO is not considered remuneration paid by the ATEO under § 53.4960-2(b)(1) and a payment of remuneration made to the individual by a related organization is not treated as paid by the ATEO under § 53.4960-2(b)(2).
(iv) Limited services exception. An individual is disregarded for purposes of determining an ATEO's five highest-compensated employees for a taxable year even though the ATEO paid remuneration to the individual if, disregarding § 53.4960-2(b)(2), all of the following requirements are met:
(A) Remuneration requirement. The ATEO did not pay 10 percent or more of the individual's total remuneration for services performed as an employee of the ATEO and all related organizations during the applicable year; and
(B) Related ATEO requirement. The ATEO had at least one related ATEO during the applicable year and one of the following conditions applies:
(1) Ten percent remuneration condition. A related ATEO paid at least 10 percent of the remuneration paid by the ATEO and any related organizations during the applicable year; or
(2) Less remuneration condition. No related ATEO paid at least 10 percent of the total remuneration paid by the ATEO and any related organizations and the ATEO paid less remuneration to the individual than at least one related ATEO during the applicable year.
(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (d). For purposes of these examples, assume any entity referred to as “ATEO” is an ATEO, any entity referred to as “CORP” is not an ATEO and is not a publicly held company within the meaning of section 162(m)(2) unless otherwise stated, and each taxpayer uses the calendar year as its taxable year.
(i) Example 1 (Employee of two related ATEOs) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 1 and ATEO 2 are related organizations and have no other related organizations. Both employ Employee A during calendar year 2022 and pay remuneration to Employee A for Employee A's services. During 2022, Employee A performed services for 1,000 hours as an employee of ATEO 1 and 1,000 hours as an employee of ATEO 2.
(B) Conclusion. Employee A may be a covered employee of both ATEO 1 and ATEO 2 as one of the five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section because the exceptions in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section do not apply. Because they are related organizations, ATEO 1 and ATEO 2 must each include the remuneration paid to Employee A by the other during each of their applicable years in determining their respective five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022.
(ii) Example 2 (Employee of an ATEO and a related non-ATEO) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section (Example 1), except that ATEO 1 is instead CORP 1.
(B) Conclusion (CORP 1). For taxable year 2022, CORP 1 is not an ATEO and therefore does not need to identify covered employees.
(C) Conclusion (ATEO 2). Employee A may be a covered employee of ATEO 2 as one of its five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section because no exception in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section applies. ATEO 2 must include the remuneration paid to Employee A by CORP 1 during its applicable year in determining ATEO 2's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022.
(iii) Example 3 (Amounts for which a deduction is disallowed under section 162(m) are taken into account for purposes of determining the five highest-compensated employees) -
(A) Facts. CORP 2 is a publicly held corporation within the meaning of section 162(m)(2) and is a related organization of ATEO 3. ATEO 3 is a corporation that is part of CORP 2's affiliated group (as defined in section 1504, without regard to section 1504(b)) and has no other related organizations. Employee B is a covered employee (as defined in section 162(m)(3)) of CORP 2 and an employee of ATEO 3. In 2022, CORP 2 paid Employee B $8 million of remuneration for services provided as an employee of CORP 2 and ATEO 3 paid Employee B $500,000 of remuneration for services provided as an employee of ATEO 3. $7.5 million of the remuneration is compensation for which a deduction is disallowed pursuant to section 162(m)(1).
(B) Conclusion. The $7.5 million of remuneration for which a deduction is disallowed under section 162(m)(1) is taken into account for purposes of determining ATEO 3's five highest-compensated employees. Thus, ATEO 3 is treated as paying Employee B $8.5 million of remuneration for purposes of determining its five highest-compensated employees.
(iv) Example 4 (Employee disregarded due to receiving no remuneration) -
(A) Facts. Employee C is an officer of ATEO 4 who performs more than minor services for ATEO 4. In 2022, neither ATEO 4 nor any related organization paid remuneration or granted a legally binding right to any nonvested remuneration to Employee C. ATEO 4 paid premiums for insurance for liability arising from Employee C's service with ATEO 4, which is properly treated as a working condition fringe benefit excluded from gross income under § 1.132-5.
(B) Conclusion. Even though Employee C is an employee of ATEO 4, Employee C is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 4's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section because neither ATEO 4 nor any related organization paid Employee C any remuneration (nor did they grant a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration) in applicable year 2022. The working condition fringe benefit is not wages within the meaning of section 3401(a), as provided in section 3401(a)(19), and thus is not remuneration within the meaning of § 53.4960-2(a).
(v) Example 5 (Limited hours exception) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 5 and CORP 3 are related organizations. ATEO 5 has no other related organizations. Employee D is an employee of CORP 3. As part of Employee D's duties at CORP 3, Employee D serves as an officer of ATEO 5. Only CORP 3 paid remuneration (or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration) to Employee D and ATEO 5 did not reimburse CORP 3 for any portion of Employee D's remuneration in any manner. During 2022, Employee D provided services as an employee for 2,000 hours to CORP 3 and 200 hours to ATEO 5.
(B) Conclusion. Even though Employee D is an employee of ATEO 5 because Employee D provided more than minor services as an officer, Employee D is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 5's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022. Employee D is disregarded under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section because only CORP 3 paid Employee D any remuneration or granted a legally binding right to nonvested remuneration in applicable year 2022 and Employee D provided services as an employee of ATEO 5 for 200 hours, which is not more than ten percent of the 2,200 total hours (2,000 + 200 = 2,200) worked as an employee of ATEO 5 and all related organizations.
(vi) Example 6 (Limited hours exception) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section (Example 5), except that ATEO 5 also provides a reasonable allowance for expenses incurred by Employee D in executing Employee D's duties as an officer of ATEO 5, which is properly excluded from gross income under an accountable plan described in § 1.62-2.
(B) Conclusion. The conclusion is the same as in paragraph (d)(3)(v)(B) of this section (Example 5). Specifically, even though Employee D is an employee of ATEO 5 because Employee D provided more than minor services for ATEO 5, Employee D is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 5's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section because the expense allowance under the accountable plan is excluded from wages within the meaning of section 3401(a), as provided in § 31.3401(a)-4, and thus is not remuneration within the meaning of § 53.4960-2(a).
(vii) Example 7 (No exception applies due to source of payment) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(v) of this section (Example 5), except that ATEO 5 has a contractual arrangement with CORP 3 to reimburse CORP 3 for the hours of service Employee D provides to ATEO 5 during applicable year 2022 by paying an amount equal to the total remuneration received by Employee D from both ATEO 5 and CORP 3, multiplied by a fraction equal to the hours of service Employee D provided ATEO 5 over Employee D's total hours of service to both ATEO 5 and CORP 3.
(B) Conclusion. Employee D may be one of ATEO 5's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section because the exceptions in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) through (iv) of this section do not apply. Pursuant to the contractual arrangement between CORP 3 and ATEO 5, ATEO 5 reimburses CORP 3 for a portion of Employee D's remuneration during applicable year 2022; thus, the exceptions under paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section do not apply. Further, while ATEO 5 paid Employee D less than 10 percent of the total remuneration from ATEO 5 and all related organizations (200 hours of service to ATEO 5/2,200 hours of service to ATEO 5 and all related organizations = 9 percent), it had no related ATEO; thus, the limited services exception under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section does not apply.
(viii) Example 8 (Nonexempt funds exception for part-time services) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 6 and CORP 4 are related organizations. ATEO 6 has no other related organizations and does not control CORP 4. During applicable year 2022, Employee E provided 2,000 hours of services as an employee of CORP 4 and 0 hours of services as an employee of ATEO 6; during applicable year 2023, Employee E provided 1,100 hours of services as an employee of CORP 4 and 900 hours of services as an employee of ATEO 6; during applicable year 2024, Employee E provided 1,100 hours of services as an employee of CORP 4 and 900 hours of services as an employee of ATEO 6. ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during any applicable year. No exception under paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), or (iv) applies to Employee E.
(B) Conclusion (2023). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2023 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2022 and 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (900 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2022 and 2023.
(C) Conclusion (2024). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2024 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2023 and 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (1,800 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2023 and 2024.
(ix) Example 9 (Nonexempt funds for full-time services in one applicable year) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(viii) of this section (Example 8), except that during applicable year 2022, Employee E provided services as an employee for 2,000 hours to CORP 4 and for 0 hours to ATEO 6; during applicable year 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee for 0 hours to CORP 4 and 2,000 hours to ATEO 6; and during applicable year 2024, Employee E resumes employment with CORP 4 so that Employee E provided services as an employee for 2,000 hours to CORP 4 and 0 hours to ATEO 6.
(B) Conclusion (2023). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2023 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2022 and 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (2,000 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2022 and 2023.
(C) Conclusion (2024). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2024 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2023 and 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (2,000 hours/4,000 hours for ATEO 6 and CORP 4), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2023 and 2024.
(x) Example 10 (Nonexempt funds exception for full-time services across two applicable years) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(viii)(A) of this section (Example 8), except that during applicable year 2022, Employee E provided services as an employee for 2,000 hours to CORP 4 and for 0 hours to ATEO 6; during applicable year 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee for 600 hours to CORP 4 and for 1,400 hours to ATEO 6; and during applicable year 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee for 1,400 hours to CORP 4 and for 600 hours to ATEO 6.
(B) Conclusion (2023). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2023 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2022 and 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (1,400 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E, nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2022 and 2023.
(C) Conclusion (2024). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2024 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2023 and 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for not more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (2,000 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E, nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2023 and 2024.
(xi) Example 11 (Failure under the nonexempt funds exception) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(viii)(A) of this section (Example 8), except that during applicable year 2022, Employee E provided services as an employee for 2,000 hours to CORP 4 and for 0 hours to ATEO 6; during applicable year 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee for 600 hours to CORP 4 and for 1,400 hours to ATEO 6; and during applicable year 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee for 1,300 hours to CORP 4 and for 700 hours to ATEO 6.
(B) Conclusion (2023). Employee E is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 6's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2023 under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section because for applicable years 2022 and 2023, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for less than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (1,400 hours/4,000 hours), and ATEO 6 neither paid any remuneration to Employee E, nor paid a fee for services to CORP 4 during applicable years 2022 and 2023.
(C) Conclusion (2024). Employee E may be a covered employee of ATEO 6 as one of its five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2024 because the requirements under paragraph (d)(2)(iii) are not met and no other exception applies. For applicable years 2023 and 2024, Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 for more than 50 percent of the total hours Employee E provided services as an employee of ATEO 6 and CORP 4 (2,100 hours/4,000 hours).
(xii) Example 12 (Limited services exception) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 7, ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10 are a group of related organizations, none of which have any other related organizations. During 2022, Employee F is an employee of ATEO 7, ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10. During applicable year 2022, ATEO 7 paid 5 percent of Employee F's remuneration, ATEO 8 paid 10 percent of Employee F's remuneration, ATEO 9 paid 25 percent of Employee F's remuneration, and ATEO 10 paid 60 percent of Employee F's remuneration. No exception under paragraph (d)(2)(i), (ii), or (iii) applies to Employee F for any of ATEO 7, ATEO 8, ATEO 9, or ATEO 10.
(B) Conclusion (ATEO 7). Employee F is disregarded for purposes of determining ATEO 7's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section because ATEO 7 paid less than 10 percent of Employee F's total remuneration from ATEO 7 and all related organizations during applicable year 2022, and another related ATEO paid at least 10 percent of that total remuneration.
(C) Conclusion (ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10). Employee F may be a covered employee of ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10 as one of their respective five highest-compensated employees for their taxable years 2022 because each of those ATEOs paid 10 percent or more of Employee F's remuneration during the 2022 applicable year. Thus, the limited services exception under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section does not apply.
(xiii) Example 13 (Limited services exception if no ATEO paid at least 10 percent of remuneration) -
(A) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (d)(3)(xii) of this section (Example 12), except that for applicable year 2022, ATEO 7 paid 6 percent of F's remuneration, ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10 each paid 5 percent of Employee F's remuneration, and Employee F also works as an employee of CORP 5, a related organization of ATEO 7, ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10 that paid 79 percent of Employee F's remuneration for applicable year 2022.
(B) Conclusion (ATEO 7). Employee F may be one of ATEO 7's five highest-compensated employees for taxable year 2022. Although ATEO 7 did not pay Employee F 10 percent or more of the total remuneration paid by ATEO 7 and all of its related organizations, no related ATEO paid more than 10 percent of Employee F's remuneration, and ATEO 7 did not pay less remuneration to Employee F than at least one related ATEO. Thus, the limited services exception under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section does not apply, and Employee F may be one of ATEO 7's five highest-compensated employees because ATEO 7 paid Employee F more remuneration than any other related ATEO.
(C) Conclusion (ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10). Employee F is disregarded for purposes of determining the five highest-compensated employees of ATEO 8, ATEO 9, and ATEO 10 for taxable year 2022 under paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section because none paid 10 percent or more of Employee F's total remuneration, each had no related ATEO that paid at least 10 percent of Employee F's total remuneration, and each paid less remuneration than at least one related ATEO (ATEO 7).
(e) Employee -
(1) In general. Employee means an employee as defined in section 3401(c) and § 31.3401(c)-1. Section 31.3401(c)-1 generally defines an employee as any individual performing services if the relationship between the individual and the person for whom the individual performs services is the legal relationship of employer and employee. As set forth in § 31.3401(c)-1, this includes common law employees, as well as officers and employees of government entities, whether or not elected. An employee generally also includes an officer of a corporation, but an officer of a corporation who as such does not perform any services or performs only minor services and who neither receives, nor is entitled to receive, any remuneration is not considered to be an employee of the corporation solely due to the individual's status as an officer of the corporation. Whether an individual is an employee depends on the facts and circumstances.
(2) Directors. A director of a corporation (or an individual holding a substantially similar position in a corporation or other entity) in the individual's capacity as such is not an employee of the corporation. See § 31.3401(c)-1(f).
(3) Trustees. The principles of paragraph (e)(2) of this section apply by analogy to a trustee of any arrangement classified as a trust for Federal tax purposes in § 301.7701-4(a).
(f) Employer -
(1) In general. Employer means an employer within the meaning of section 3401(d), without regard to section 3401(d)(1) or (2), meaning generally the person or governmental entity for whom the services were performed as an employee. Whether a person or governmental entity is the employer depends on the facts and circumstances, but a person does not cease to be the employer through use of a payroll agent under section 3504, a common paymaster under section 3121(s), a person described in section 3401(d)(1) or (2), a certified professional employer organization under section 7705, or any similar arrangement.
(2) Disregarded entities. In the case of a disregarded entity described in § 301.7701-3, § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(iv) does not apply; thus, the sole owner of the disregarded entity is treated as the employer of any individual performing services as an employee of the disregarded entity.
(g) Medical services -
(1) Medical and veterinary services -
(i) In general. Medical services means services directly performed by a licensed medical professional (as defined in paragraph (g)(2) of this section) for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or animals; services provided for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the human or animal body; and other services integral to providing such medical services. For purposes of section 4960, teaching and research services are not medical services except to the extent that they involve the services performed to directly diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease or affect a structure or function of the body. Administrative services may be integral to directly providing medical services. For example, documenting the care and condition of a patient is integral to providing medical services, as is accompanying another licensed professional as a supervisor while that medical professional provides medical services. However, managing an organization's operations, including scheduling, staffing, appraising employee performance, and other similar functions that may relate to a particular medical professional or professionals who perform medical services, is not integral to providing medical services. See § 53.4960-2(a)(2)(ii) for rules regarding allocating remuneration paid to a medical professional who performs both medical services and other services.
(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (g):
(A) Example 1 (Administrative tasks that are integral to providing medical services) -
(1) Facts. Employee A is a doctor who is licensed to practice medicine in the state in which Employee A's place of employment is located. In the course of Employee A's practice, Employee A treats patients and performs some closely-related administrative tasks, such as examining and updating patient records.
(2) Conclusion. Employee A's administrative tasks are integral to providing medical services and thus are medical services.
(B) Example 2 (Administrative tasks that are not integral to providing medical services) -
(1) Facts. Assume the same facts as in paragraph (g)(1)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (Example 1), except that Employee A also performs additional administrative tasks such as analyzing the budget, authorizing capital expenditures, and managing human resources for the organization by which Employee A is employed.
(2) Conclusion. Employee A's additional administrative tasks are not integral to providing medical services and thus are not medical services.
(C) Example 3 (Teaching duties that are and are not medical services) -
(1) Facts. Employee B is a medical doctor who is licensed to practice medicine in the state in which her place of employment, a university hospital, is located. Employee B's duties include overseeing and teaching a group of resident physicians who have restricted licenses to practice medicine. Those duties include supervising and instructing the resident physicians while they treat patients and instruction in a classroom setting.
(2) Conclusion. Employee B's supervision and instruction of resident physicians during the course of patient treatment are necessary for the treatment, and thus are medical services. Employee B's classroom instruction is not necessary for patient treatment, and thus is not medical services.
(D) Example 4 (Research services that are and are not medical services) -
(1) Facts. Employee C is a licensed medical doctor who is employed to work on a research trial. Employee C provides an experimental treatment to patients afflicted by a disease and performs certain closely-related administrative tasks that ordinarily are performed by a medical professional in a course of patient treatment. As part of the research trial, Employee C also compiles and analyzes patient results and prepares reports and articles that would not ordinarily be prepared by a medical professional in the course of patient treatment.
(2) Conclusion. Employee C's services that are ordinarily performed by a medical professional in a course of treatment, including closely-related administrative tasks, are medical services. Because the compilation and analysis of patient results and the formulation of reports and articles are neither services ordinarily performed by a medical professional in a course of treatment nor necessary for such treatment, these services are not medical services.
(2) Definition of licensed medical professional. Licensed medical professional means an individual who is licensed under applicable state or local law to perform medical services, including as a doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner, dentist, veterinarian, or other licensed medical professional.
(h) Predecessor -
(1) Asset acquisitions. If an ATEO (acquiror) acquires at least 80 percent of the operating assets or total assets (determined by fair market value on the date of acquisition) of another ATEO (target), then the target is a predecessor of the acquiror. For an acquisition of assets that occurs over time, only assets acquired within a 12-month period are taken into account to determine whether at least 80 percent of the target's operating assets or total assets were acquired. However, this 12-month period is extended to include any continuous period that ends or begins on any day during which the acquiror has an arrangement to acquire directly or indirectly, assets of the target. Additions to the assets of target made as part of a plan or arrangement to avoid the application of this subsection to acquiror's purchase of target's assets are disregarded in applying this paragraph. This paragraph (h)(1) applies for purposes of determining whether an employee is a covered employee under paragraph (d)(1) of this section only with respect to a covered employee of the target who commences the performance of services for the acquiror (or a related organization with respect to the acquiror) within the period beginning 12 months before and ending 12 months after the date of the transaction as defined in paragraph (h)(7) of this section.
(2) Corporate reorganizations. A predecessor of an ATEO includes another separate ATEO the stock or assets of which are acquired in a corporate reorganization as defined in section 368(a)(1)(A), (C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) (including by reason of section 368(a)(2)).
(3) Predecessor change of form or of place of organization. An ATEO that restructured by changing its organizational form or place of organization (or both) is a predecessor of the restructured ATEO.
(4) ATEO that becomes a non-ATEO -
(i) General rule. An organization is a predecessor of an ATEO if it ceases to be an ATEO and then again becomes an ATEO effective on or before the predecessor end date. The predecessor end date is the date that is 36 months following the date that the organization's Federal information return under section 6033 (or, for an ATEO described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section, its Federal income tax return under section 6011(a)) is due (or would be due if the organization were required to file), excluding any extension, for the last taxable year for which the organization previously was an ATEO. If the organization becomes an ATEO again effective after the predecessor end date, then the former ATEO is treated as a separate organization that is not a predecessor of the current ATEO.
(ii) Intervening changes or entities. If an ATEO that ceases to be an ATEO (former ATEO) would be treated as a predecessor to an organization that becomes an ATEO before the predecessor end date (successor ATEO), and if the former ATEO would be treated as a predecessor to each intervening entity (if such intervening entities had been ATEOs) under the rules of this paragraph (h), then the former ATEO is a predecessor of the successor ATEO. For example, if ATEO 1 loses its tax-exempt status and then merges into Corporation X, Corporation X then merges into Corporation Y, and Corporation Y becomes an ATEO before the predecessor end date, then ATEO 1 is a predecessor of Corporation Y.
(5) Predecessor of a predecessor. A reference to a predecessor includes any predecessor or predecessors of such predecessor, as determined under these rules.
(6) Elections under sections 336(e) and 338. For purposes of this paragraph (h), when an ATEO organized as a corporation makes an election to treat as an asset purchase either the sale, exchange, or distribution of stock pursuant to regulations under section 336(e) or the purchase of stock pursuant to regulations under section 338, the corporation that issued the stock is treated as the same corporation both before and after such transaction.
(7) Date of transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (h), the date that a transaction is treated as having occurred is the date on which all events necessary to complete the transaction described in the relevant provision have occurred.
(i) Related organization -
(1) In general. Related organization means any person or governmental entity, domestic or foreign, that meets any of the following tests:
(i) Controls or controlled by test. The person or governmental entity controls, or is controlled by, the ATEO;
(ii) Controlled by same persons test. The person or governmental entity is controlled by one or more persons that control the ATEO;
(iii) Supported organization test. The person or governmental entity is a supported organization (as defined in section 509(f)(3)) with respect to the ATEO;
(iv) Supporting organization test. The person or governmental entity is a supporting organization described in section 509(a)(3) with respect to the ATEO; or
(v) VEBA test. With regard to an ATEO that is a voluntary employees' beneficiary association (VEBA) described in section 501(c)(9), the person or governmental entity establishes, maintains, or makes contributions to such VEBA.
(2) Control -
(i) In general. Control may be direct or indirect. For rules concerning application of the principles of section 318 in applying this paragraph (i)(2), see paragraph (i)(2)(vii) of this section.
(ii) Stock corporation. A person or governmental entity controls a stock corporation if it owns (by vote or value) more than 50 percent of the stock in the stock corporation.
(iii) Partnership. A person or governmental entity controls a partnership if it owns more than 50 percent of the profits interests or capital interests in the partnership, determined in accordance with the rules and principles of § 1.706-1(b)(4)(ii) for a partner's interest in the profits of a partnership and § 1.706-1(b)(4)(iii) for a partner's interest in the capital of a partnership.
(iv) Trust. A person or governmental entity controls a trust if it owns more than 50 percent of the beneficial interests in the trust, determined by actuarial value.
(v) Nonstock organization -
(A) In general. A person or governmental entity controls a nonstock organization if more than 50 percent of the trustees or directors of the nonstock organization are either representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, the person or governmental entity. A nonstock organization is a nonprofit organization or other organization without owners and includes a governmental entity.
(B) Control of a trustee or director of a nonstock organization. A person or governmental entity controls a trustee or director of the nonstock organization if the person or governmental entity has the power (either at will or at regular intervals) to remove such trustee or director and designate a new one.
(C) Representatives. Trustees, directors, officers, employees, or agents of a person or governmental entity are deemed representatives of the person or governmental entity. However, an employee of a person or governmental entity (other than a trustee, director, or officer, or an employee who possesses at least the authority commonly exercised by an officer) who is a director or trustee of a nonstock organization (or acting in that capacity) will not be treated as a representative of the person or governmental entity if the employee does not act as a representative of the person or governmental entity and that fact is reported in the form and manner prescribed by the Commissioner in forms and instructions.
(vi) Brother-sister related organizations. Under paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, an organization is a related organization with respect to an ATEO if one or more persons control both the ATEO and the other organization. In the case of control by multiple persons, the control tests described in this paragraph (i)(2) of this section apply to the persons as a group. For example, if 1,000 individuals who are members of both ATEO 1 and ATEO 2 elect a majority of the board members of each organization, then ATEO 1 and ATEO 2 are related to each other because the same group of 1,000 persons controls both ATEO 1 and ATEO 2.
(vii) Section 318 principles -
(A) In general. Section 318 (relating to constructive ownership of stock) applies in determining ownership of stock in a corporation. The principles of section 318 also apply for purposes of determining ownership of interests in a partnership or in a trust with beneficial interests. For example, applying the principles of section 318(a)(1)(A), an individual is considered to own the partnership interest or trust interest owned, directly or indirectly, by or for the family members specified in such section.
(B) Nonstock organizations -
(1) Attribution of ownership interest from a nonstock organization to a controlling person. If a person or governmental entity controls a nonstock organization, the person or governmental entity is treated as owning a percentage of the stock (or partnership interest or beneficial interest in a trust) owned by the nonstock organization in accordance with the percentage of trustees or directors of the nonstock organization that are representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, the person or governmental entity.
(2) Attribution of ownership interest from a controlling person to a nonstock organization. If a person or governmental entity controls a nonstock organization, the nonstock organization is treated as owning a percentage of the stock (or partnership interest or beneficial interest in a trust) owned by the person or governmental entity in accordance with the percentage of trustees or directors of the nonstock organization that are representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, the person or governmental entity.
(3) Indirect control of a nonstock organization through another nonstock organization. If a person or governmental entity controls one nonstock organization that controls a second nonstock organization, the person or governmental entity is treated as controlling the second nonstock organization if the product of the percentage of trustees or directors of the first nonstock organization that are representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, the person or governmental entity, multiplied by the percentage of trustees or directors of the second nonstock organization that are representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, the person or governmental entity or first nonstock organization, exceeds 50 percent. Similar principles apply to successive tiers of nonstock organizations.
(4) Attribution of control of nonstock organization to family member. An individual's control of a nonstock organization or of a trustee or director of a nonstock organization is attributed to the members of the individual's family (as set forth in section 318(a)(1) and the regulations thereunder), subject to the limitation of section 318(a)(5)(B) and the regulations thereunder.
(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (i). For purposes of these examples, assume any entity referred to as “ATEO” is an ATEO and any entity referred to as “CORP” is not an ATEO.
(i) Example 1 (Related through a chain of control) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 1, ATEO 2, and ATEO 3 are nonstock organizations. ATEO 3 owns 80 percent of the stock (by value) of corporation CORP 1. Eighty percent of ATEO 2's directors are representatives of ATEO 1. In addition, 80 percent of ATEO 3's directors are representatives of ATEO 1.
(B) Conclusion. ATEO 1 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 2 (and vice versa) because more than 50 percent of ATEO 2's directors are representatives of ATEO 1; thus, ATEO 1 controls ATEO 2. Based on the same analysis, ATEO 1 is also a related organization with respect to ATEO 3 (and vice versa). CORP 1 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 3 because, as the owner of more than 50 percent of CORP 1's stock, ATEO 3 controls CORP 1. Applying the principles of section 318, ATEO 1 is deemed to own 64 percent of the stock of CORP 1 (80 percent of ATEO 3's stock in CORP 1). Thus, CORP 1 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 1 because ATEO 1 controls CORP 1. ATEO 2 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 3, ATEO 3 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 2, and CORP 1 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 2 because ATEO 2, ATEO 3, and CORP 1 are all controlled by the same person (ATEO 1).
(ii) Example 2 (Not related through a chain of control) -
(A) Facts. ATEO 4, ATEO 5, and ATEO 6 are nonstock organizations. Sixty percent of ATEO 5's directors are representatives of ATEO 4. In addition, 60 percent of ATEO 6's directors are representatives of ATEO 5, but none are representatives of ATEO 4.
(B) Conclusion. ATEO 4 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 5 (and vice versa) because more than 50 percent of ATEO 5's directors are representatives of ATEO 4; thus, ATEO 4 controls ATEO 5. Based on the same analysis, ATEO 6 is a related organization with respect to ATEO 5 (and vice versa). Applying the principles of section 318, ATEO 4 is deemed to control 36 percent of ATEO 6's directors (60 percent of ATEO 5's 60 percent control over ATEO 6). Because less than 50 percent of ATEO 6's directors are representatives of ATEO 4, and absent any facts suggesting that ATEO 4 directly or indirectly controls ATEO 6, ATEO 4 and ATEO 6 are not related organizations with respect to each other.

Source

26 CFR § 53.4960-1


Scoping language

None
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