Middle Roof Load Zone.
(B) Middle Roof Load Zone. The following counties in each of the following states are deemed to be within the Middle Roof Load Zone:
(C) South Roof Load Zone. The states and counties that are not listed for the North Roof Load Zone in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(A) of this section, or the Middle Roof Load Zone in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(B) of this section, are deemed to be within the South Roof Load Zone.
(ii) Consideration of local requirements. For exposures in areas (mountainous or other) where recognized snow records, wind records, or the requirements of the State or local authority indicate significant differences from the loads stated in this paragraph (c)(3), the Department may establish, through rulemaking, more stringent requirements for manufactured homes to be installed in such areas. For snow loads, such requirements must be based on a roof snow load of 0.6 of the ground snow load for areas exposed to wind and a roof snow load of 0.8 of the ground snow load for sheltered areas.
(iii) Eaves and cornices shall be designed for a net uplift pressure of 2.5 times the design uplift wind pressure cited in § 3280.305(c)(1)(i) for Wind Zone I, and for the design pressures cited in § 3280.305(c)(1)(ii) for Wind Zones II and III.
(iv) Skylights must be capable of withstanding roof loads as specified in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) or (c)(3)(ii) of this section. Skylights must be listed and tested in accordance with AAMA 1600/I.S.7-00, 2003, Voluntary Specification for Skylights.
(4) Data plate requirements. The Data Plate posted in the manufactured home (see § 3280.5) shall designate the wind and roof load zones or, if designed for higher loads, the actual design external snow and wind loads for which the home has been designed. The Data Plate shall include reproductions of the Load Zone Maps shown in this paragraph (c)(4), with any related information. The Load Zone Maps shall be not less than either 3
1/2 in. by 2
1/4 in., or one-half the size illustrated in the Code of Federal Regulations.
(d) Design load deflection.
(1) When a structural assembly is subjected to total design live loads, the deflection for structural framing members shall not exceed the following (where L equals the clear span between supports or two times the length of a cantilever):
(2) The allowable eave or cornice deflection for uplift is to be measured at the design uplift load of 9 psf for Wind Zone I, and at the design uplift pressure cited in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section for Wind Zones II and III. The allowable deflection shall be (2 × Lc)/180, where Lc is the measured horizontal eave projection from the wall.
(e) Fastening of structural systems.
(1) Roof framing must be securely fastened to wall framing, walls to floor structure, and floor structure to chassis, to secure and maintain continuity between the floor and chassis in order to resist wind overturning, uplift, and sliding, and to provide continuous load paths for these forces to the foundation or anchorage system. The number and type of fasteners used must be capable of transferring all forces between elements being joined.
(2) For Wind Zone II and Wind Zone III, roof framing members must be securely fastened at the vertical bearing points to resist design overturning, uplift, and sliding forces. When engineered connectors are not installed, roof framing members must be secured at the vertical bearing points to wall framing members (studs), and wall framing members (studs) must be secured to floor framing members, with 0.016 inch base metal, minimum steel strapping or engineered connectors, or by a combination of 0.016 inch base metal, minimum steel strapping or engineered connectors, and structural-rated wall sheathing that overlaps the roof and floor system if substantiated by structural analysis or by suitable load tests. Steel strapping or engineered connectors are to be installed at a maximum spacing of 24 inches on center in Wind Zone II, and 16 inches on center in Wind Zone III. Exception: Where substantiated by structural analysis or suitable load tests, the 0.016 inch base metal minimum steel strapping or engineered connectors may be omitted at the roof to wall and/or wall to floor connections, when structural rated sheathing that overlaps the roof and wall and/or wall and floor is capable of resisting the applicable design wind loads.
(f) Walls. The walls shall be of sufficient strength to withstand the load requirements as defined in § 3280.305(c) of this part, without exceeding the deflections as specified in § 3280.305(d). The connections between the bearing walls, floor, and roof framework members shall be fabricated in such a manner as to provide support for the material used to enclose the manufactured home and to provide for transfer of all lateral and vertical loads to the floor and chassis.
(1) Except where substantiated by engineering analysis or tests, studs shall not be notched or drilled in the middle one-third of their length.
(2) Interior walls and partitions shall be constructed with structural capacity adequate for the intended purpose and shall be capable of resisting a horizontal load of not less than five pounds per square foot. An allowable stress increase of 1.33 times the permitted published design values may be used in the design of wood framed interior partitions. Finish of walls and partitions shall be securely fastened to wall framing.
(1) Floor assemblies shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice standards to support a minimum uniform live load of 40 lb/ft
2 plus the dead load of the materials. In addition (but not simultaneously), floors shall be able to support a 200-pound concentrated load on a one-inch diameter disc at the most critical location with a maximum deflection not to exceed one-eighth inch relative to floor framing. Perimeter wood joists of more than six inches depth shall be stabilized against overturning from superimposed loads as follows: at ends by solid blocking not less than two-inch thickness by full depth of joist, or by connecting to a continuous header not less than two-inch thickness and not less than the depth of the joist with connecting devices; at eight-feet maximum intermediate spacing by solid blocking or by wood cross-bridging of not less than one inch by three inches, metal cross-bridging of equal strength, or by other approved methods.
(2) Wood, wood fiber or plywood floors or subfloors in kitchens, bathrooms (including toilet compartments), laundry areas, water heater compartments, and any other areas subject to excessive moisture shall be moisture resistant or shall be made moisture resistant by sealing or by an overlay of nonabsorbent material applied with water-resistant adhesive. Use of one of the following methods would meet this requirement:
(i) Sealing the floor with a water-resistant sealer; or
(ii) Installing an overlay of a non-absorbent floor covering material applied with water-resistant adhesive; or
(iii) Direct application of a water-resistant sealer to the exposed wood floor area when covered with a non-absorbent overlay; or
(iv) The use of a non-absorbent floor covering which may be installed without a continuous application of a water-resistant adhesive or sealant when the floor covering meets the following criteria:
(A) The covering is a continuous membrane with any seams or patches seam bonded or welded to preserve the continuity of the floor covering; and
(B) The floor is protected at all penetrations in these areas by sealing with a compatible water-resistant adhesive or sealant to prevent moisture from migrating under the nonabsorbent floor covering; and
(C) The covering is fastened around the perimeter of the subfloor in accordance with the floor covering manufacturer's instructions; and,
(D) The covering is designed to be installed to prevent moisture penetration without the use of a water-resistant adhesive or sealer except as required in this paragraph (g). The vertical edges of penetrations for plumbing shall be covered with a moisture-resistant adhesive or sealant. The vertical penetrations located under the bottom plates of perimeter walls of rooms, areas, or compartments are not required to be sealed; this does not include walls or partitions within the rooms or areas.
(3) Wood panel products used as floor or subfloor materials on the exterior of the home, such as in recessed entryways, must be rated for exterior exposure and protected from moisture by sealing or applying nonabsorbent overlay with water resistant adhesive.
(4) Carpet or carpet pads shall not be installed under concealed spaces subject to excessive moisture, such as plumbing fixture spaces, floor areas under installed laundry equipment. Carpet may be installed in laundry space provided:
(i) The appliances are not provided;
(ii) The conditions of paragraph (g)(2) of this section are followed; and
(iii) Instructions are provided to remove carpet when appliances are installed.
(5) Except where substantiated by engineering analysis or tests:
(i) Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth.
(ii) Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches of the top or bottom of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist.
(iii) Notches in the top or bottom of the joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span.
(6) Bottom board material (with or without patches) shall meet or exceed the level of 48 inch-pounds of puncture resistance as tested by the Beach Puncture Test in accordance with Standard Test Methods for Puncture and Stiffness of Paperboard, and Corrugated and Solid Fiberboard, ASTM D-781-1968 (73). The material shall be suitable for patches and the patch life shall be equivalent to the material life. Patch installation instruction shall be included in the manufactured home manufacturer's instructions.
(1) Roofs shall be of sufficient strength to withstand the load requirements as defined in § 3280.305 (b) and (c) without exceeding the deflections specified in § 3280.305(d). The connections between roof framework members and bearing walls shall be fabricated in such a manner to provide for the transfer of design vertical and horizontal loads to the bearing walls and to resist uplift forces.
(2) Roofing membranes shall be of sufficient rigidity to prevent deflection which would permit ponding of water or separation of seams due to wind, snow, ice, erection or transportation forces.
(3) Cutting of roof framework members for passage of electrical, plumbing or mechanical systems shall not be allowed except where substantiated by engineering analysis.
(4) All roof penetrations for electrical, plumbing or mechanical systems shall be properly flashed and sealed. In addition, where a metal roof membrane is penetrated, a wood backer shall be installed. The backer plate shall be not less than
5/16 inch plywood, with exterior glues, secured to the roof framing system beneath the metal roof, and shall be of a size to assure that all screws securing the flashing are held by the backer plate.
(i) Frame construction. The frame shall be capable of transmitting all design loads to stabilizing devices without exceeding the allowable load and deflections of this section. The frame shall also be capable of withstanding the effects of transportation shock and vibration without degradation as required by subpart J.
(2) Protection of metal frames against corrosion. Metal frames shall be made corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion. Metal frames may be protected against corrosion by painting.
(j) Welded connections.
(1) All welds must be made in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design, AISC-S335, 1989; the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, AISI, 1996; and the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members, SEI/ASCE 8-02, 2002.
(2) Regardless of the provisions of any reference standard contained in this subpart, deposits of weld slag or flux shall be required to be removed only from welded joints at the following locations:
(i) Drawbar and coupling mechanisms;
(ii) Main member splices, and
(iii) Spring hanger to main member connections.
(1) For roofs with slopes 7:12 or greater, the area of the attic floor that meets the ceiling-height/living-space requirements of these construction and safety standards must be designed to resist a minimum design live load of 40 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
(2) For roofs with slopes less than 7:12 that contain an attic area or for portions of roofs with slopes 7:12 or greater that do meet the ceiling height/living space requirements of the standards, the attic floor must be designed for a storage live load of 20 pounds per square foot (psf).
24 CFR § 3280.305
General. Each manufactured home shall be designed and constructed as a completely integrated structure capable of sustaining the design load requirements of this standard, and shall be capable of transmitting these loads to stabilizing devices without exceeding the allowable stresses or deflections. Roof framing shall be securely fastened to wall framing, walls to floor structure, and floor structure to chassis to secure and maintain continuity between the floor and chassis, so as to resist wind overturning, uplift, and sliding as imposed by design loads in this part. Uncompressed finished flooring greater than 1/8 inch in thickness shall not extend beneath load-bearing walls that are fastened to the floor structure.