(11) Broker. The term broker means any person, U.S. or foreign, that, in the ordinary course of a trade or business during the calendar year, stands ready to effect sales to be made by others. Examples of a broker include an obligor that regularly issues and retires its own debt obligations, a corporation that regularly redeems its own stock, and a clearing organization that effects sales of securities for its members. A broker does not include an international organization described in 1.1471-6(c) that redeems or retires an obligation of which it is the issuer, a stock transfer agent that records transfers of stock for a corporation if the nature of the activities of the agent is such that the agent ordinarily would not know the gross proceeds from sales, an escrow agent that effects no sales other than transactions incidental to the purpose of the escrow (such as sales to collect on collateral), or a corporation that issues and retires long-term debt on an irregular basis.
26 CFR § 1.1471-1
Scope of chapter 4 of the Internal Revenue Code. Sections 1.1471-1 through 1.1474-7 provide rules for withholding when a withholding agent makes a payment to an FFI or NFFE and prescribe the requirements for and definitions relevant to FFIs and NFFEs to which withholding will not apply. Section 1.1471-1 provides definitions for terms used in chapter 4 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and the regulations thereunder. Section 1.1471-2 provides rules for withholding under section 1471(a) on payments to FFIs, including the exception from withholding for payments made with respect to certain grandfathered obligations. Section 1.1471-3 provides rules for determining the payee of a payment and the documentation requirements to establish a payee's chapter 4 status. Section 1.1471-4 describes the requirements of an FFI agreement under section 1471(b) and the application of sections 1471(b) and (c) to an expanded affiliated group of FFIs. Section 1.1471-5 defines terms relevant to section 1471 and the FFI agreement and defines categories of FFIs that will be deemed to have met the requirements of section 1471(b) pursuant to section 1471(b)(2). Section 1.1471-6 defines classes of beneficial owners of payments that are exempt from withholding under chapter 4. Section 1.1472-1 provides rules for withholding when a withholding agent makes a payment to an NFFE, and defines categories of NFFEs that are not subject to withholding. Section 1.1473-1 provides definitions of the statutory terms in section 1473. Section 1.1474-1 provides rules relating to a withholding agent's liability for withheld tax, filing of income tax and information returns, and depositing of tax withheld. Section 1.1474-2 provides rules relating to adjustments for overwithholding and underwithholding of tax. Section 1.1474-3 provides the circumstances in which a credit is allowed to a beneficial owner for a withheld tax. Section 1.1474-4 provides that a chapter 4 withholding obligation need only be collected once. Section 1.1474-5 contains rules relating to credits and refunds of tax withheld. Section 1.1474-6 provides rules coordinating withholding under sections 1471 and 1472 with withholding provisions under other sections of the Code. Section 1.1474-7 provides the confidentiality requirement for information obtained to comply with the requirements of chapter 4. Any reference in the provisions of sections 1471 through 1474 to an amount that is stated in U.S. dollars includes the foreign currency equivalent of that amount. Except as otherwise provided, the provisions of sections 1471 through 1474 and the regulations thereunder apply only for purposes of chapter 4. See 301.1474-1 of this chapter for the requirements for reporting on magnetic media that apply to financial institutions making payments or otherwise reporting accounts pursuant to chapter 4.