Research, development, and demonstration
(40) Research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) means expenditures incurred by a service company, for the service company or on behalf of others, either directly or through another person or organization (such as research institute, industry association, foundation, university, engineering company or similar contractor) in pursuing research, development, and demonstration activities including experiment, design, installation, construction, or operation. This definition includes expenditures for the implementation or development of new and/or existing concepts until technically feasible and commercially feasible operations are verified. When conducted on behalf of an associate or non-associate utility company such research, development, and demonstration costs should be reasonably related to the existing or future business of such company. The term includes, but is not limited to: All the costs incidental to the design, development or implementation of an experimental facility, a plant process, a product, a formula, an invention, a system or similar items, and the improvement of already existing items of a like nature; amounts expended in connection with the proposed development and/or proposed delivery of alternate sources of electricity or substitute or synthetic gas supplies (alternate fuel sources, for example, an experimental coal gasification plant or an experimental plant synthetically producing gas from liquid hydrocarbons); and the costs of obtaining its own patent, such as attorney's fees expended in making and perfecting a patent application. The term includes preliminary investigations and detailed planning of specific projects for securing for customers' non-conventional electric power or pipeline gas supplies that rely on technology that has not been verified previously to be feasible. The term does not include expenditures for efficiency surveys; studies of management, management techniques and organization; consumer surveys, advertising, promotions, or items of a like nature.