Certification.

Certification. Certification is the process by which manufacturers and remanufacturers apply for and obtain certificates of conformity from EPA that allow the manufacturer or remanufacturer to introduce into commerce new locomotives and/or new locomotive engines for sale or use in the U.S.
(1)
(i) Compliance with the applicable emission standards by an engine family must be demonstrated by the certifying manufacturer or remanufacturer before a certificate of conformity may be issued under § 92.208.
(A) Manufacturers shall demonstrate compliance using emission data, measured using the procedures specified in subpart B of this part, from a low mileage locomotive, or a development engine (that is equivalent in design to the locomotive engines being certified), or another low hour engine.
(B) Remanufacturers shall demonstrate compliance using emission data, measured using the procedures specified in subpart B of this part, from a low mileage remanufactured locomotive, or a development engine (that is equivalent in design to the locomotive engines being certified), or another low hour remanufactured engine that was remanufactured in the manner specified in the application for certification.
(ii) The emission values to compare with the standards shall be the emission values of a low mileage locomotive, or development engine, or low hour locomotive engine, adjusted by the deterioration factors developed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Before any emission value is compared with the standard, it shall be rounded, in accordance with ASTM E 29-93a (incorporated by reference at § 92.5), to the same number of decimal places as contained in the applicable standard.
(2) Exhaust emission deterioration factors shall be determined by the certifying manufacturer or remanufacturer for each engine family. The manufacturer's or remanufacturer's determination is subject to the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. The deterioration factor relates emissions from low mileage or low hour data to emissions at the end of useful life. If certification data is obtained from a development engine, and the emissions performance of that engine is significantly different from a typical low hour engine, then the deterioration factors may be adjusted for the purpose of certification.
(i) A separate exhaust emission deterioration factor shall be established, as required, for compliance with applicable emission standards for HC, THCE, NMHC, CO, NOX. particulate and smoke for each engine family.
(ii)
(A) For locomotives or locomotive engines not utilizing aftertreatment technology (e.g., catalyst). For HC, THCE, NMHC, CO, NOX. and PM, additive deterioration factors shall be used; that is, a deterioration factor that when added to the low mileage emission rate equals the emission rate at the end of useful life. However, if the deterioration factor supplied by the manufacturer or remanufacturer is less than zero, it shall be zero for the purposes of this section.
(B) For locomotives or locomotive engines utilizing aftertreatment technology (e.g., catalyst). For HC, THCE, NMHC, CO, NOX. and PM, Multiplicative deterioration factors shall be used; that is deterioration factors that when multiplied by the low mileage emission rate equal the emission rate at the end of useful life. However, if the deterioration factor supplied by the manufacturer or remanufacturer is less than one, it shall be one for the purposes of this paragraph (b).
(C) For all locomotives and locomotive engines. For smoke, additive deterioration factors shall be used. However, if the deterioration factor supplied by the manufacturer or remanufacturer is less than zero, it shall be zero for the purposes of this paragraph (b).
(iii) In the case of a multiplicative exhaust emission deterioration factor, the factor shall be rounded to three places to the right of the decimal point in accordance with ASTM E 29-93a (incorporated by reference at § 92.5). In the case of an additive exhaust emission deterioration factor, the factor shall be established to a minimum of two places to the right of the decimal in accordance with ASTM E 29-93a (incorporated by reference at § 92.5).
(iv) Every deterioration factor must be, in the Administrator's judgement, consistent with emissions increases observed in-use based on emission testing of similar locomotives or locomotive engines. Deterioration factors that predict emission increases over the useful life of a locomotive or locomotive engine that are significantly less than the emission increases over the useful life observed from in-use testing of similar locomotives or locomotive engines shall not be used.

Source

40 CFR § 92.9


Scoping language

None
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