Openings in cylinders.

Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:
(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.
(2) Each opening in the cylinder, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by welding or by threads. If threads are used they must comply with the following:
(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.
(2) Each opening in the cylinder, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by welding or by threads. If threads are used they must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even without checks and cut to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.
(3) Closure of a fitting, boss or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.
(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:
(1) Lot testing.
(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.
(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.
(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(v) If the selected cylinder fails, then two (2) additional specimens must be selected at random from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed testing. If either of these fails the test, then each cylinder in that lot must be tested as prescribed in paragraph (i)(l) of this section.
(2) Pressure testing.
(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. A cylinder showing a defect must be rejected unless it may be requalified under paragraph (m) of this section. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.
(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:
(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder having passed the hydrostatic test, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when the cylinder wall is not over 3/16 inch thick.
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.
(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for 2-inch gauge lengths or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens and by 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.
(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:
(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or a welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimens must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or a welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.
(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized.
(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:
(1) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick.
(2) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to top end of cylinder.
(3) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof: sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates: the plate must be at least 1/16 inch thick and must be attached by welding or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1100 °F, throughout all edges of the plate.
(4) Variations in location of markings authorized only when necessitated by lack of space.

Source

49 CFR § 178.56


Scoping language

None
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