Deviation means any instance in which an affected source subject to this subpart, or an owner or operator of such a source:
(1) Fails to meet any requirement or obligation established by this subpart including, but not limited to, any emission limit, operating limit, or work practice standard; or
(2) Fails to meet any term or condition that is adopted to implement an applicable requirement in this subpart and that is included in the operating permit for any affected source required to obtain such a permit; or
(3) Fails to meet any emission limit, operating limit, or work practice standard in this subpart during startup, shutdown, or malfunction, regardless of whether or not such failure is permitted by this subpart.
40 CFR § 63.2550
For an affected source complying with the requirements in subpart SS of this part 63, the terms used in this subpart and in subpart SS of this part 63 have the meaning given them in 63.981, except as specified in 63.2450(k)(2) and (m), 63.2470(c)(2), 63.2475(b), and paragraph (i) of this section.