(1) Article means a manufactured item which:
(i) Is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture,
(ii) Has end use functions dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during the end use, and
(iii) Has either no change of chemical composition during its end use or only those changes of composition which have no commercial purpose separate from that of the article and that may occur as described in § 12.120(a)(2); except that fluids and particles are not considered articles regardless of shape or design.
(2) The allowable changes of composition, referred to in § 12.120(a)(1), are those which result from a chemical reaction that occurs upon the end use of other chemical substances, mixtures, or articles such as adhesives, paints, miscellaneous cleaners or other household products, fuels and fuel additives, water softening and treatment agents, photographic films, batteries, matches, and safety flares in which the chemical substance manufactured upon end use of the article is not itself manufactured for distribution in commerce or for use as an intermediate.