Wall thickness.

Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not be over 60,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.040 inch is required for any diameter container. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:
(1) Calculation for sphere must be made by the formula:
(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:
(1) Calculation for sphere must be made by the formula:
(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:
(g) Heat treatment. The seamless hemispheres and cylinders may be stress relieved or annealed for forming. Welded container must be stress relieved at a temperature of 775 °F ±25° after process treatment and before hydrostatic test.
(h) Openings in container. Openings must comply with the following:
(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad of weldable stainless steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.
(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.
(i) Process treatment. Each container must be hydraulically pressurized in a water jacket to at least 100 percent, but not more than 110 percent, of the test pressure and maintained at this pressure for a minimum of 3 minutes. Total and permanent expansion must be recorded and included in the inspector's report.
(j) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:
(1) The test must be by water-jacket, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.
(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.
(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(4) Each container must be tested to at least 2 times service pressure.
(5) Container must then be inspected. Any wall thickness lower than that required by paragraph (f) of this section must be cause for rejection. Bulges and cracks must be cause for rejection. Welded joint defects exceeding requirements of paragraph (k) of this section must be cause for rejection.
(k) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic inspection is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the container diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container is cause for rejection. Radiographic inspection must be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic test.
(l) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. Rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.
(m) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed as follows:
(1) For spheres the test must be at the weld between parallel steel plates on a press with welded seam at right angles to the plates. Test one sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less after the hydrostatic test. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.
(2) For cylinders the test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 1/2-inch radius. Test one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after the hydrostatic test.
(n) Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests. Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests are as follows:
(1) Flattening required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.
(2) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times the service pressure.
(o) Rejected containers. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to process treatment is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must be heat treated and pass all prescribed tests.
(p) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector must verify that all tests are conducted at temperatures between 60 °F and 90 °F.
(q) Marking. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.

Source

49 CFR § 178.47


Scoping language

None
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