Monitoring means the collection and use of measurement data or other information to control the operation of a process or pollution control device or to verify a work practice standard relative to assuring compliance with applicable requirements. Monitoring is composed of four elements:
(1) Indicator(s) of performance - the parameter or parameters you measure or observe for demonstrating proper operation of the pollution control measures or compliance with the applicable emissions limitation or standard. Indicators of performance may include direct or predicted emissions measurements (including opacity), operational parametric values that correspond to process or control device (and capture system) efficiencies or emissions rates, and recorded findings of inspection of work practice activities, materials tracking, or design characteristics. Indicators may be expressed as a single maximum or minimum value, a function of process variables (for example, within a range of pressure drops), a particular operational or work practice status (for example, a damper position, completion of a waste recovery task, materials tracking), or an interdependency between two or among more than two variables.
(2) Measurement techniques - the means by which you gather and record information of or about the indicators of performance. The components of the measurement technique include the detector type, location and installation specifications, inspection procedures, and quality assurance and quality control measures. Examples of measurement techniques include continuous emission monitoring systems, continuous opacity monitoring systems, continuous parametric monitoring systems, and manual inspections that include making records of process conditions or work practices.
(3) Monitoring frequency - the number of times you obtain and record monitoring data over a specified time interval. Examples of monitoring frequencies include at least four points equally spaced for each hour for continuous emissions or parametric monitoring systems, at least every 10 seconds for continuous opacity monitoring systems, and at least once per operating day (or week, month, etc.) for work practice or design inspections.
(4) Averaging time - the period over which you average and use data to verify proper operation of the pollution control approach or compliance with the emissions limitation or standard. Examples of averaging time include a 3-hour average in units of the emissions limitation, a 30-day rolling average emissions value, a daily average of a control device operational parametric range, and an instantaneous alarm.


40 CFR § 63.2

Scoping language

The terms used in this part are defined in the Act or in this section as follows:

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