(1) For any testing, you may calculate the total mass of emissions, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, and divide it by the total work generated over the test interval, as described in paragraph (d) of this section, using the following equation:

(2) For discrete-mode steady-state testing, you may calculate the brake-specific emissions over a test interval using the ratio of emission mass rate to power, as described in paragraph (e) of this section, using the following equation:

(3) For field testing, you may calculate the ratio of total mass to total work, where these individual values are determined as described in paragraph (f) of this section. You may also use this approach for laboratory testing, consistent with good engineering judgment. Good engineering judgment dictates that this method not be used if there are any work flow paths described in § 1065.210 that cross the system boundary, other than the primary output shaft (crankshaft). This is a special case in which you use a signal linearly proportional to raw exhaust molar flow rate to determine a value proportional to total emissions. You then use the same linearly proportional signal to determine total work using a chemical balance of fuel, DEF, intake air, and exhaust as described in § 1065.655, plus information about your engine's brake-specific fuel consumption. Under this method, flow meters need not meet accuracy specifications, but they must meet the applicable linearity and repeatability specifications in subpart D or J of this part. The result is a brake-specific emission value calculated as follows:

(1) For any testing, you may calculate the total mass of emissions, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, and divide it by the total work generated over the test interval, as described in paragraph (d) of this section, using the following equation:

(2) For discrete-mode steady-state testing, you may calculate the brake-specific emissions over a test interval using the ratio of emission mass rate to power, as described in paragraph (e) of this section, using the following equation:

(3) For field testing, you may calculate the ratio of total mass to total work, where these individual values are determined as described in paragraph (f) of this section. You may also use this approach for laboratory testing, consistent with good engineering judgment. Good engineering judgment dictates that this method not be used if there are any work flow paths described in § 1065.210 that cross the system boundary, other than the primary output shaft (crankshaft). This is a special case in which you use a signal linearly proportional to raw exhaust molar flow rate to determine a value proportional to total emissions. You then use the same linearly proportional signal to determine total work using a chemical balance of fuel, DEF, intake air, and exhaust as described in § 1065.655, plus information about your engine's brake-specific fuel consumption. Under this method, flow meters need not meet accuracy specifications, but they must meet the applicable linearity and repeatability specifications in subpart D or J of this part. The result is a brake-specific emission value calculated as follows:

(c) Total mass of emissions over a test interval. To calculate the total mass of an emission, multiply a concentration by its respective flow. For all systems, make preliminary calculations as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section to correct concentrations. Next, use the method in paragraphs (c)(2) through (4) of this section that is appropriate for your system. Finally, if necessary, calculate the mass of NMHC as described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section for all systems. Calculate the total mass of emissions as follows:

(1) Concentration corrections. Perform the following sequence of preliminary calculations on recorded concentrations:

(i) Use good engineering judgment to time-align flow and concentration data to match transformation time, t50, to within ±1 s.

(ii) Correct all gaseous emission analyzer concentration readings, including continuous readings, sample bag readings, and dilution air background readings, for drift as described in § 1065.672. Note that you must omit this step where brake-specific emissions are calculated without the drift correction for performing the drift validation according to § 1065.550(b). When applying the initial THC and CH4 contamination readings according to § 1065.520(f), use the same values for both sets of calculations. You may also use as-measured values in the initial set of calculations and corrected values in the drift-corrected set of calculations as described in § 1065.520(f)(7).

(iii) Correct all THC and CH4 concentrations for initial contamination as described in § 1065.660(a), including continuous readings, sample bags readings, and dilution air background readings.

(iv) Correct all concentrations measured on a “dry” basis to a “wet” basis, including dilution air background concentrations, as described in § 1065.659.

(v) Calculate all NMHC and CH4 concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, as described in § 1065.660.

(vi) For emission testing with an oxygenated fuel, calculate any HC concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, as described in § 1065.665. See subpart I of this part for testing with oxygenated fuels.

(vii) Correct all the NOX concentrations, including dilution air background concentrations, for intake-air humidity as described in § 1065.670.

(2) Continuous sampling. For continuous sampling, you must frequently record a continuously updated concentration signal. You may measure this concentration from a changing flow rate or a constant flow rate (including discrete-mode steady-state testing), as follows:

(i) Varying flow rate. If you continuously sample from a varying exhaust flow rate, time align and then multiply concentration measurements by the flow rate from which you extracted it. We consider the following to be examples of varying flows that require a continuous multiplication of concentration times molar flow rate: raw exhaust, exhaust diluted with a constant flow rate of dilution air, and CVS dilution with a CVS flow meter that does not have an upstream heat exchanger or electronic flow control. This multiplication results in the flow rate of the emission itself. Integrate the emission flow rate over a test interval to determine the total emission. If the total emission is a molar quantity, convert this quantity to a mass by multiplying it by its molar mass, M. The result is the mass of the emission, m. Calculate m for continuous sampling with variable flow using the following equations: