General rules.

General rules.
(1) A reopening is a remedial action taken to change a binding determination or decision that resulted in either an overpayment or underpayment, even though the binding determination or decision may have been correct at the time it was made based on the evidence of record. That action may be taken by -
(i) A contractor to revise the initial determination or redetermination;
(ii) A QIC to revise the reconsideration;
(iii) An ALJ or attorney adjudicator to revise his or her decision; or
(iv) The Council to revise the ALJ or attorney adjudicator decision, or its review decision.
(2) If a contractor issues a denial of a claim because it did not receive requested documentation during medical review and the party subsequently requests a redetermination, the contractor must process the request as a reopening.
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(4) of this section, a contractor must process clerical errors (which includes minor errors and omissions) as reopenings, instead of as redeterminations as specified in ยง 405.940. If the contractor receives a request for reopening and disagrees that the issue is a clerical error, the contractor must dismiss the reopening request and advise the party of any appeal rights, provided the timeframe to request an appeal on the original denial has not expired. For purposes of this section, clerical error includes human or mechanical errors on the part of the party or the contractor such as -
(i) Mathematical or computational mistakes;
(ii) Inaccurate data entry; or
(iii) Denials of claims as duplicates.
(4) When a party has filed a valid request for an appeal of an initial determination, redetermination, reconsideration, ALJ or attorney adjudicator decision, or Council review, no adjudicator has jurisdiction to reopen an issue on a claim that is under appeal until all appeal rights for that issue are exhausted. Once the appeal rights for the issue have been exhausted, the contractor, QIC, ALJ or attorney adjudicator, or Council may reopen as set forth in this section.
(5) The contractor's, QIC's, ALJ's or attorney adjudicator's, or Council's decision on whether to reopen is binding and not subject to appeal.
(6) A determination under the Medicare secondary payer provisions of section 1862(b) of the Act that Medicare has an MSP recovery claim for services or items that were already reimbursed by the Medicare program is not a reopening, except where the recovery claim is based upon a provider's or supplier's failure to demonstrate that it filed a proper claim as defined in part 411 of this chapter.


42 CFR § 405.980

Scoping language

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