Collection means material remains that are excavated or removed during a survey, excavation or other study of a prehistoric or historic resource, and associated records that are prepared or assembled in connection with the survey, excavation or other study.
(1) Material remains means artifacts, objects, specimens and other physical evidence that are excavated or removed in connection with efforts to locate, evaluate, document, study, preserve or recover a prehistoric or historic resource. Classes of material remains (and illustrative examples) that may be in a collection include, but are not limited to:
(i) Components of structures and features (such as houses, mills, piers, fortifications, raceways, earthworks and mounds);
(ii) Intact or fragmentary artifacts of human manufacture (such as tools, weapons, pottery, basketry and textiles);
(iii) Intact or fragmentary natural objects used by humans (such as rock crystals, feathers and pigments);
(iv) By-products, waste products or debris resulting from the manufacture or use of man-made or natural materials (such as slag, dumps, cores and debitage);
(v) Organic material (such as vegetable and animal remains, and coprolites);
(vi) Human remains (such as bone, teeth, mummified flesh, burials and cremations);
(vii) Components of petroglyphs, pictographs, intaglios or other works of artistic or symbolic representation;
(viii) Components of shipwrecks (such as pieces of the ship's hull, rigging, armaments, apparel, tackle, contents and cargo);
(ix) Environmental and chronometric specimens (such as pollen, seeds, wood, shell, bone, charcoal, tree core samples, soil, sediment cores, obsidian, volcanic ash, and baked clay); and
(x) Paleontological specimens that are found in direct physical relationship with a prehistoric or historic resource.
(2) Associated records means original records (or copies thereof) that are prepared, assembled and document efforts to locate, evaluate, record, study, preserve or recover a prehistoric or historic resource. Some records such as field notes, artifact inventories and oral histories may be originals that are prepared as a result of the field work, analysis and report preparation. Other records such as deeds, survey plats, historical maps and diaries may be copies of original public or archival documents that are assembled and studied as a result of historical research. Classes of associated records (and illustrative examples) that may be in a collection include, but are not limited to:
(i) Records relating to the identification, evaluation, documentation, study, preservation or recovery of a resource (such as site forms, field notes, drawings, maps, photographs, slides, negatives, films, video and audio cassette tapes, oral histories, artifact inventories, laboratory reports, computer cards and tapes, computer disks and diskettes, printouts of computerized data, manuscripts, reports, and accession, catalog and inventory records);
(ii) Records relating to the identification of a resource using remote sensing methods and equipment (such as satellite and aerial photography and imagery, side scan sonar, magnetometers, subbottom profilers, radar and fathometers);
(iii) Public records essential to understanding the resource (such as deeds, survey plats, military and census records, birth, marriage and death certificates, immigration and naturalization papers, tax forms and reports);
(iv) Archival records essential to understanding the resource (such as historical maps, drawings and photographs, manuscripts, architectural and landscape plans, correspondence, diaries, ledgers, catalogs and receipts); and
(v) Administrative records relating to the survey, excavation or other study of the resource (such as scopes of work, requests for proposals, research proposals, contracts, antiquities permits, reports, documents relating to compliance with section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470f), and National Register of Historic Places nomination and determination of eligibility forms).
(b) Curatorial services. Providing curatorial services means managing and preserving a collection according to professional museum and archival practices, including, but not limited to:
(1) Inventorying, accessioning, labeling and cataloging a collection;
(2) Identifying, evaluating and documenting a collection;
(3) Storing and maintaining a collection using appropriate methods and containers, and under appropriate environmental conditions and physically secure controls;
(4) Periodically inspecting a collection and taking such actions as may be necessary to preserve it;
(5) Providing access and facilities to study a collection; and
(6) Handling, cleaning, stabilizing and conserving a collection in such a manner to preserve it.


36 CFR § 79.4

Scoping language

As used for purposes of this part:

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