principles of scientific research

(18) Principles of scientific research The term “principles of scientific research” means principles of research that— (A) apply rigorous, systematic, and objective methodology to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs; (B) present findings and make claims that are appropriate to, and supported by, the methods that have been employed; and (C) include, appropriate to the research being conducted— (i) use of systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; (ii) use of data analyses that are adequate to support the general findings; (iii) reliance on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and generalizable findings; (iv) strong claims of causal relationships, only with research designs that eliminate plausible competing explanations for observed results, such as, but not limited to, random-assignment experiments; (v) presentation of studies and methods in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, to offer the opportunity to build systematically on the findings of the research; (vi) acceptance by a peer-reviewed journal or critique by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review; and (vii) consistency of findings across multiple studies or sites to support the generality of results and conclusions.


20 USC § 1021(18)

Scoping language

In this subchapter
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