(5) For purposes of this part— (A) The term “value” means, with respect to securities for which market quotations are readily available, the market value of such securities; and with respect to other securities and assets, fair value as determined in good faith by the trustees, except that in the case of securities of real estate investment trusts such fair value shall not exceed market value or asset value, whichever is higher. (B) The term “real estate assets” means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other real estate investment trusts which meet the requirements of this part, and debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs. Such term also includes any property (not otherwise a real estate asset) attributable to the temporary investment of new capital, but only if such property is stock or a debt instrument, and only for the 1-year period beginning on the date the real estate trust receives such capital. (C) The term “interests in real property” includes fee ownership and co-ownership of land or improvements thereon, leaseholds of land or improvements thereon, options to acquire land or improvements thereon, and options to acquire leaseholds of land or improvements thereon, but does not include mineral, oil, or gas royalty interests. (D) Qualified temporary investment income.— (i) In general .— The term “qualified temporary investment income” means any income which— (I) is attributable to stock or a debt instrument (within the meaning of section 1275(a)(1) ), (II) is attributable to the temporary investment of new capital, and (III) is received or accrued during the 1-year period beginning on the date on which the real estate investment trust receives such capital. (ii) New capital .— The term “new capital” means any amount received by the real estate investment trust— (I) in exchange for stock (or certificates of beneficial interests) in such trust (other than amounts received pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan), or (II) in a public offering of debt obligations of such trust which have maturities of at least 5 years. (E) A regular or residual interest in a REMIC shall be treated as a real estate asset, and any amount includible in gross income with respect to such an interest shall be treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property; except that, if less than 95 percent of the assets of such REMIC are real estate assets (determined as if the real estate investment trust held such assets), such real estate investment trust shall be treated as holding directly (and as receiving directly) its proportionate share of the assets and income of the REMIC. For purposes of determining whether any interest in a REMIC qualifies under the preceding sentence, any interest held by such REMIC in another REMIC shall be treated as a real estate asset under principles similar to the principles of the preceding sentence, except that, if such REMIC’s are part of a tiered structure, they shall be treated as one REMIC for purposes of this subparagraph. (F) All other terms shall have the same meaning as when used in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended ( 15 U.S.C. 80a–1 and following). (G) Treatment of certain hedging instruments .— Except to the extent as determined by the Secretary— (i) any income of a real estate investment trust from a hedging transaction (as defined in clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1221(b)(2)(A) ), including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, shall not constitute gross income under paragraphs (2) and (3) to the extent that the transaction hedges any indebtedness incurred or to be incurred by the trust to acquire or carry real estate assets, (ii) any income of a real estate investment trust from a transaction entered into by the trust primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain described in paragraph (2) or (3) (or any property which generates such income or gain), including gain from the termination of such a transaction, shall not constitute gross income under paragraphs (2) and (3), (iii) if— (I) a real estate investment trust enters into one or more positions described in clause (i) with respect to indebtedness described in clause (i) or one or more positions described in clause (ii) with respect to property which generates income or gain described in paragraph (2) or (3), (II) any portion of such indebtedness is extinguished or any portion of such property is disposed of, and (III) in connection with such extinguishment or disposition, such trust enters into one or more transactions which would be hedging transactions described in clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1221(b)(2)(A) with respect to any position referred to in subclause (I) if such position were ordinary property, any income of such trust from any position referred to in subclause (I) and from any transaction referred to in subclause (III) (including gain from the termination of any such position or transaction) shall not constitute gross income under paragraphs (2) and (3) to the extent that such transaction hedges such position, and (iv) clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) shall not apply with respect to any transaction unless such transaction satisfies the identification requirement described in section 1221(a)(7) (determined after taking into account any curative provisions provided under the regulations referred to therein). (H) Treatment of timber gains.— (i) In general .— Gain from the sale of real property described in paragraph (2)(D) and (3)(C) shall include gain which is— (I) recognized by an election under section 631(a) from timber owned by the real estate investment trust, the cutting of which is provided by a taxable REIT subsidiary of the real estate investment trust; (II) recognized under section 631(b); or (III) income which would constitute gain under subclause (I) or (II) but for the failure to meet the 1-year holding period requirement. (ii) Special rules.— (I) For purposes of this subtitle, cut timber, the gain from which is recognized by a real estate investment trust pursuant to an election under section 631(a) described in clause (i)(I) or so much of clause (i)(III) as relates to clause (i)(I), shall be deemed to be sold to the taxable REIT subsidiary of the real estate investment trust on the first day of the taxable year. (II) For purposes of this subtitle, income described in this subparagraph shall not be treated as gain from the sale of property described in section 1221(a)(1). (iii) Termination .— This subparagraph shall not apply to dispositions after the termination date. (I) Timber real estate investment trust .— The term “timber real estate investment trust” means a real estate investment trust in which more than 50 percent in value of its total assets consists of real property held in connection with the trade or business of producing timber. (J) Secretarial authority to exclude other items of income .— To the extent necessary to carry out the purposes of this part, the Secretary is authorized to determine, solely for purposes of this part, whether any item of income or gain which— (i) does not otherwise qualify under paragraph (2) or (3) may be considered as not constituting gross income for purposes of paragraphs (2) or (3), or (ii) otherwise constitutes gross income not qualifying under paragraph (2) or (3) may be considered as gross income which qualifies under paragraph (2) or (3). (K) Cash .— If the real estate investment trust or its qualified business unit (as defined in section 989 ) uses any foreign currency as its functional currency (as defined in section 985(b)), the term “cash” includes such foreign currency but only to the extent such foreign currency— (i) is held for use in the normal course of the activities of the trust or qualified business unit which give rise to items of income or gain described in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (c) or are directly related to acquiring or holding assets described in subsection (c)(4), and (ii) is not held in connection with an activity described in subsection (n)(4). (L) Definitions related to debt instruments of publicly offered reits.— (i) Publicly offered reit .— The term “publicly offered REIT” has the meaning given such term by section 562(c)(2). (ii) Nonqualified publicly offered reit debt instrument .— The term “nonqualified publicly offered REIT debt instrument” means any real estate asset which would cease to be a real estate asset if subparagraph (B) were applied without regard to the reference to “debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs”.